Microwaves are electromagnetic radiation with wavelength ranging from 1 mm to 1 m in free space with a frequency from 300 GHz to 300 MHz, respectively. International agreements regulate the use of the different parts of the spectrum; the frequencies 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz are the most common among those dedicated to power applications for industrial, scientific and medical purposes (Metaxas & Meredith, 1983). Although microwaves have been firstly adopted for communications scope, an increasing attention to microwave heating applications has been gained since after World War II (Meredith, 1998; Chan & Reader, 2002). Reasons for this growing interest can be found in the peculiar mechanism for energy transfer: during microwave heating, energy is delivered directly to materials through molecular interactions with electromagnetic field via conversion of electrical field energy into thermal energy. This can allow unique benefits, such as high efficiency of energy conversion and shorter processing times, thus reductions in manufacturing costs thanks to energy saving. Moreover, other effects have been pointed out, such as the possibility to induce new structural properties to irradiated materials (development of new materials) and to apply novel strategies in chemical syntheses (green techniques). Crucial parameters in microwave heating are the dielectric properties of matter; they express the energy coupling of a material with electromagnetic microwave field and, thus, the heating feasibility (Metaxas & Meredith, 1983; Schubert & Regier 1995; Tang et al., 2002). On the bases of dielectric properties, microwave devices (applicators) can be adopted in heating operations and optimized working protocols can be used. This chapter is divided into four sections dealing with: i. fundamentals of microwave heating and relevance of dielectric properties of materials; ii. different techniques used in dielectric properties measurements of materials (test fixtures characteristics, technique applicability, advantages and disadvantages); iii. application of the open-ended coaxial-probe method in dielectric properties measurements of food, pharmaceutical ingredients, living materials, to understand specific heating phenomenology and, thus, to optimize thermal treatments / to define safety limits of exposition; iv. basics of heat and mass transfer modeling in microwave assisted processes.

Relevance of dielectric properties in microwave assisted processes

BARBA, Anna Angela;D'AMORE, Matteo
2012

Abstract

Microwaves are electromagnetic radiation with wavelength ranging from 1 mm to 1 m in free space with a frequency from 300 GHz to 300 MHz, respectively. International agreements regulate the use of the different parts of the spectrum; the frequencies 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz are the most common among those dedicated to power applications for industrial, scientific and medical purposes (Metaxas & Meredith, 1983). Although microwaves have been firstly adopted for communications scope, an increasing attention to microwave heating applications has been gained since after World War II (Meredith, 1998; Chan & Reader, 2002). Reasons for this growing interest can be found in the peculiar mechanism for energy transfer: during microwave heating, energy is delivered directly to materials through molecular interactions with electromagnetic field via conversion of electrical field energy into thermal energy. This can allow unique benefits, such as high efficiency of energy conversion and shorter processing times, thus reductions in manufacturing costs thanks to energy saving. Moreover, other effects have been pointed out, such as the possibility to induce new structural properties to irradiated materials (development of new materials) and to apply novel strategies in chemical syntheses (green techniques). Crucial parameters in microwave heating are the dielectric properties of matter; they express the energy coupling of a material with electromagnetic microwave field and, thus, the heating feasibility (Metaxas & Meredith, 1983; Schubert & Regier 1995; Tang et al., 2002). On the bases of dielectric properties, microwave devices (applicators) can be adopted in heating operations and optimized working protocols can be used. This chapter is divided into four sections dealing with: i. fundamentals of microwave heating and relevance of dielectric properties of materials; ii. different techniques used in dielectric properties measurements of materials (test fixtures characteristics, technique applicability, advantages and disadvantages); iii. application of the open-ended coaxial-probe method in dielectric properties measurements of food, pharmaceutical ingredients, living materials, to understand specific heating phenomenology and, thus, to optimize thermal treatments / to define safety limits of exposition; iv. basics of heat and mass transfer modeling in microwave assisted processes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11386/3862814
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