In the Italian primary school qualified teachers are presently not fully involved in the teaching of physical education. Compared to other EU countries, the qualitative and quantitative level of motor activities in the educational field appears to be less adequate. Over the past few decades, the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) has promoted several interventions in order to offset the negative trends resulting from the latest scientific research, both those examining the quantity of children’s physical motor activities and also those dealing with the growth of phenomena such as sedentariness and improper nutrition. A “Motor Literacy” three-year project was activated in primary schools in 2009, following an agreement protocol between MIUR and the Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI). The project establishes that an expert with a degree in Physical Education (Scienze Motorie) has to assist the primary school teacher during the curricular hours of motor activity. The purpose of the present study is to reflect on the positive and negative aspects of the project, whose activities aim at acquiring several motor abilities and active lifestyles. There has also been an attempt to outline a financial statement of the project through a cost-benefit analysis. The reference scientific literature and the three-year progress of the project have been re-examined using the theoretical-argumentative approach. This study has made it possible to consider the strengths and weaknesses of the project and to analyze its effectiveness and scientific validity. The results of the project have been analyzed considering the data taken from national monitoring. The descriptive and statistical analysis has shown that the participants in the project obtained a significant increase in their abilities and motor skills. This is underlined by a substantial decrease in the number of mistakes made (48.9 %) in the prearranged course and by a slight improvement in the time taken to finish it (an average of 9.8 % considering the whole group analyzed). The opinions of the students, the families and the school heads involved in the project have been collected through questionnaires which indicated 85% of positive answers and a general will to continue with the experience. The project expenses rose from 5 million euros in the first year to 12.5 million euros in 2013, with an average cost of 24 euros per student. Overall, the results of the “Motor Literacy” project are positive for motor monitoring and also considering the approval obtained. If the Motor Literacy was extended to all students in Italian primary schools, with the introduction of a teacher holding a degree in Physical Education (Scienze Motorie), it would produce an increase in the physically active population and a general improvement in the level of the psychophysical conditions of the children. In addition, this would lead to an increment in the competitivety and the efficiency of the country’s production system.
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