In recent years, there has been a decrease in accidents due to technical failures through technological developments of redundancy and protection, which have made systems more reliable. However, it is not possible to talk about system reliability without addressing the failure rate of all its components; among these components, "man" – because his rate of error changes the rate of failure of components with which he interacts. It is clear that the contribution of the human factor in the dynamics of accidents – both statistically and in terms of severity of consequences – is high [2]. Although valid values are difficult to obtain, estimates agree that errors committed by man are responsible for 60–90% of the accidents; the remainder of accidents are attributable to technical deficiencies [2,3,4]. The incidents are, of course, the most obvious human errors in industrial systems, but minor faults can seriously reduce the operations performances, in terms of productivity and efficiency. In fact, human error has a direct impact on productivity because errors affect the rates of rejection of the product, thereby increasing the cost of production and possibly reduce subsequent sales. Therefore, there is need to assess human reliability to reduce the likely causes of errors [1]. The starting point of this work was to study the framework of today’s methods of human reliability analysis (HRA): those quantitative of the first generation (as THERP and HCR), those qualitative of second (as CREAM and SPAR-H), and new dynamic HRA methods and recent improvements of individual phases of HRA approaches. These methods have, in fact, the purpose of assessing the likelihood of human error – in industrial systems, for a given operation, in a certain interval of time and in a particular context – on the basis of models that describe, in a more or less simplistic way, the complex mechanism that lies behind the single human action that is potentially subject to error [1]. The concern in safety and reliability analyses is whether an operator is likely to make an incorrect action and which type of action is most likely [5]. The goals defined by Swain and Guttmann (1983) in discussing the THERP approach, one of the first HRA methods developed, are still valid: The objective of a human reliability analysis is ‘to evaluate the operator’s contribution to system reliability’ and, more precisely, ‘to predict human error rates and to evaluate the degradation to human–machine systems likely to be caused by human errors in association with equipment functioning, operational procedures and practices, and other system and human characteristics which influence the system behavior’ [7]. The different HRA methods analysed allowed us to identify guidelines for determining the likelihood of human error and the assessment of contextual factors. The first step is to identify a probability of human error for the operation to be performed, while the second consists of the evaluation through appropriate multipliers, the impact of environmental, and the behavioural factors of this probability [1]. The most important objective of the work will be to provide a simulation module for the evaluation of human reliability that must be able to be used in a dual manner [1]: In the preventive phase, as an analysis of the possible situation that may occur and as evaluation of the percentage of pieces discarded by the effect of human error; In post-production, to understand what are the factors that influence human performance so they can reduce errors. The tool will also provide for the possibility of determining the optimal configuration of breaks through use of a methodology that, with assessments of an economic nature, allow identification of conditions that, in turn, is required for the suspension of work for psychophysical recovery of the operator and then for the restoration of acceptable values of reliability [1].

An Overview of Human Reliability Analysis Techniques in Manufacturing Operations

Valentina Di Pasquale;IANNONE, RAFFAELE;MIRANDA, Salvatore;RIEMMA, Stefano
2013

Abstract

In recent years, there has been a decrease in accidents due to technical failures through technological developments of redundancy and protection, which have made systems more reliable. However, it is not possible to talk about system reliability without addressing the failure rate of all its components; among these components, "man" – because his rate of error changes the rate of failure of components with which he interacts. It is clear that the contribution of the human factor in the dynamics of accidents – both statistically and in terms of severity of consequences – is high [2]. Although valid values are difficult to obtain, estimates agree that errors committed by man are responsible for 60–90% of the accidents; the remainder of accidents are attributable to technical deficiencies [2,3,4]. The incidents are, of course, the most obvious human errors in industrial systems, but minor faults can seriously reduce the operations performances, in terms of productivity and efficiency. In fact, human error has a direct impact on productivity because errors affect the rates of rejection of the product, thereby increasing the cost of production and possibly reduce subsequent sales. Therefore, there is need to assess human reliability to reduce the likely causes of errors [1]. The starting point of this work was to study the framework of today’s methods of human reliability analysis (HRA): those quantitative of the first generation (as THERP and HCR), those qualitative of second (as CREAM and SPAR-H), and new dynamic HRA methods and recent improvements of individual phases of HRA approaches. These methods have, in fact, the purpose of assessing the likelihood of human error – in industrial systems, for a given operation, in a certain interval of time and in a particular context – on the basis of models that describe, in a more or less simplistic way, the complex mechanism that lies behind the single human action that is potentially subject to error [1]. The concern in safety and reliability analyses is whether an operator is likely to make an incorrect action and which type of action is most likely [5]. The goals defined by Swain and Guttmann (1983) in discussing the THERP approach, one of the first HRA methods developed, are still valid: The objective of a human reliability analysis is ‘to evaluate the operator’s contribution to system reliability’ and, more precisely, ‘to predict human error rates and to evaluate the degradation to human–machine systems likely to be caused by human errors in association with equipment functioning, operational procedures and practices, and other system and human characteristics which influence the system behavior’ [7]. The different HRA methods analysed allowed us to identify guidelines for determining the likelihood of human error and the assessment of contextual factors. The first step is to identify a probability of human error for the operation to be performed, while the second consists of the evaluation through appropriate multipliers, the impact of environmental, and the behavioural factors of this probability [1]. The most important objective of the work will be to provide a simulation module for the evaluation of human reliability that must be able to be used in a dual manner [1]: In the preventive phase, as an analysis of the possible situation that may occur and as evaluation of the percentage of pieces discarded by the effect of human error; In post-production, to understand what are the factors that influence human performance so they can reduce errors. The tool will also provide for the possibility of determining the optimal configuration of breaks through use of a methodology that, with assessments of an economic nature, allow identification of conditions that, in turn, is required for the suspension of work for psychophysical recovery of the operator and then for the restoration of acceptable values of reliability [1].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11386/4044453
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