In the northern hemisphere, yellows, witches’ broom, and decline diseases of several forest and urban tree species are widespread and of considerable economic and ecological significance. Elm (Ulmus spp.) and alder (Alnus spp.) are affected by elm yellows (EY) and alder yellows (ALY), respectively. These diseases are mainly associated with the presence of closely related phytoplasmas, the EY agent ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi’ and the ALY agent, which are members of the EY or 16SrV group, subgroups 16SrV-A and 16SrV-C, respectively. Ash (Fraxinus spp.) is affected by ash yellows, a disease which occurs mainly in North America and is associated with the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini’, a member of subgroup 16SrVII-A. Poplar (Populus spp.), sandal (Santalum album), paulownia (Paulownia spp.), and mulberry (Morus spp.) are affected by yellows diseases associated with phytoplasmas of different 16SrI subgroups. Several species of conifers are affected by yellows and witches’ broom diseases associated with phytoplasmas belonging to at least five taxonomic groups (16SrI, 16SrIII, 16SrVI, 16SrIX, and 16SrXXI) and several different subgroups. A number of urban tree species grown in the Sabana de Bogotà (Colombia) are affected by decline diseases which are primarily associated with 16SrI and 16SrVII phytoplasmas. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of major phytoplasma diseases of forest and urban trees grown in the northern hemisphere.

Major phytoplasma diseases of forest and urban trees

Carmine Marcone
;
2018-01-01

Abstract

In the northern hemisphere, yellows, witches’ broom, and decline diseases of several forest and urban tree species are widespread and of considerable economic and ecological significance. Elm (Ulmus spp.) and alder (Alnus spp.) are affected by elm yellows (EY) and alder yellows (ALY), respectively. These diseases are mainly associated with the presence of closely related phytoplasmas, the EY agent ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi’ and the ALY agent, which are members of the EY or 16SrV group, subgroups 16SrV-A and 16SrV-C, respectively. Ash (Fraxinus spp.) is affected by ash yellows, a disease which occurs mainly in North America and is associated with the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini’, a member of subgroup 16SrVII-A. Poplar (Populus spp.), sandal (Santalum album), paulownia (Paulownia spp.), and mulberry (Morus spp.) are affected by yellows diseases associated with phytoplasmas of different 16SrI subgroups. Several species of conifers are affected by yellows and witches’ broom diseases associated with phytoplasmas belonging to at least five taxonomic groups (16SrI, 16SrIII, 16SrVI, 16SrIX, and 16SrXXI) and several different subgroups. A number of urban tree species grown in the Sabana de Bogotà (Colombia) are affected by decline diseases which are primarily associated with 16SrI and 16SrVII phytoplasmas. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of major phytoplasma diseases of forest and urban trees grown in the northern hemisphere.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4716712
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