The quality of inclusive education is rather complex and requires a profound cultural analysis before being subjected to evaluation (Booth & Ainscow, 2009). The different aspects are multiple and are suitable to be set according to different perspectives; the scientific explanations, on which to reflect in order to study the evaluation criteria of inclusive processes, do not necessarily appear automatically coherent and oriented towards the same goals. Are the evaluation outputs really useful for improving inclusive processes? What are priority between outputs and processes? Can the innovation of didactic contents and methodologies really produce a change in teaching-learning processes or do they need to be implemented by a new paradigm that emphasizes relationship, empathy and sharing? Clearly a different paradigm involves different objectives and teaching strategies to adopt in the planning and implementation of interventions; consequently to evaluate the inclusive quality of the educational system it is necessary to adopt appropriate indicators according to the chosen approach. A transmission-based teaching approach is mostly oriented towards achieving a performance, a result of the teaching-learning process, which can be evaluated mainly by the quantitative point of view. An innovative and participatory teaching approach, in addition to the previous orientation, is oriented towards skills development and construction and co-construction processes of knowledge and implies a completely different docimological perspective. Method The paradigm of the Embodied Cognitive Science (ECS) (Gomez Paloma, 2013), whose foundations have been recognized for years in many scientific fields, involves a new multi-perspectives vision also in the educational field. Regarding the inclusion, the ECS paradigm allows to interpret and understand the complexity of the school context, enhancing differences and promoting the success of all learners (Gomez Paloma, Damiani, 2015), that implicates a re-thinking of some key elements of teaching. It follows that the simple categorization of problematic situations, according to a reductionist view of needs, hinders the real understanding of the phenomenon and its correct qualitative analysis (Giaconi, 2018); therefore, it is necessary the real application of the bio-psychosocial approach (ICF 2001) to face an effective reading of the differences according to a dynamic, holistic and multidimensional perspective. Outcomes (expected) The integrated and inclusive curriculum, according to the ECS paradigm, identifies the ethical dimension as the "core", the value-based nucleus that promotes inclusive educational action. It is a very different perspective compared to the search for performance improvement in quantitative terms. It is an approach that studies the subject according to the perspective of the Embodiment, focusing more attention on the processes of competences development that completely involve the individual, the environment that surrounds him and his interpersonal relationships (Ianes, Cramerotti, 2013). This article aims to encourage a reflection on the different dimensions of education inclusion according to the ECS perspective, aimed to promoting the creation / integration of new indicators for the evaluation of the quality of inclusive education, which is also able to reorientate educational actions and to provide a truly equitable and inclusive education.

Quality inclusive education according to Embodied Cognitive Science. Multidimensional analysis to creation/integration of indicators for the evaluation of educational system

Filippo Gomez Paloma
;
Cristiana D'Anna
;
Paola Damiani
2019

Abstract

The quality of inclusive education is rather complex and requires a profound cultural analysis before being subjected to evaluation (Booth & Ainscow, 2009). The different aspects are multiple and are suitable to be set according to different perspectives; the scientific explanations, on which to reflect in order to study the evaluation criteria of inclusive processes, do not necessarily appear automatically coherent and oriented towards the same goals. Are the evaluation outputs really useful for improving inclusive processes? What are priority between outputs and processes? Can the innovation of didactic contents and methodologies really produce a change in teaching-learning processes or do they need to be implemented by a new paradigm that emphasizes relationship, empathy and sharing? Clearly a different paradigm involves different objectives and teaching strategies to adopt in the planning and implementation of interventions; consequently to evaluate the inclusive quality of the educational system it is necessary to adopt appropriate indicators according to the chosen approach. A transmission-based teaching approach is mostly oriented towards achieving a performance, a result of the teaching-learning process, which can be evaluated mainly by the quantitative point of view. An innovative and participatory teaching approach, in addition to the previous orientation, is oriented towards skills development and construction and co-construction processes of knowledge and implies a completely different docimological perspective. Method The paradigm of the Embodied Cognitive Science (ECS) (Gomez Paloma, 2013), whose foundations have been recognized for years in many scientific fields, involves a new multi-perspectives vision also in the educational field. Regarding the inclusion, the ECS paradigm allows to interpret and understand the complexity of the school context, enhancing differences and promoting the success of all learners (Gomez Paloma, Damiani, 2015), that implicates a re-thinking of some key elements of teaching. It follows that the simple categorization of problematic situations, according to a reductionist view of needs, hinders the real understanding of the phenomenon and its correct qualitative analysis (Giaconi, 2018); therefore, it is necessary the real application of the bio-psychosocial approach (ICF 2001) to face an effective reading of the differences according to a dynamic, holistic and multidimensional perspective. Outcomes (expected) The integrated and inclusive curriculum, according to the ECS paradigm, identifies the ethical dimension as the "core", the value-based nucleus that promotes inclusive educational action. It is a very different perspective compared to the search for performance improvement in quantitative terms. It is an approach that studies the subject according to the perspective of the Embodiment, focusing more attention on the processes of competences development that completely involve the individual, the environment that surrounds him and his interpersonal relationships (Ianes, Cramerotti, 2013). This article aims to encourage a reflection on the different dimensions of education inclusion according to the ECS perspective, aimed to promoting the creation / integration of new indicators for the evaluation of the quality of inclusive education, which is also able to reorientate educational actions and to provide a truly equitable and inclusive education.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11386/4750944
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