Rationale The mechanisms by which oxidants are sensed by cells and cause inflammation are not well understood. Objectives: This study aimed to determine how cells "sense" soluble oxidants and how this Is translated into an Inflammatory reaction. Methods: Monocytes, macrophages, or HEK293 cells (stably transfected with human Toll-like receptor [TLR]2, TLR2/1, TLR2/6, or TLR4/MD2-CD14) were used. CXC ligand-8 (CXCL8) levels were measured using ELISA. Phosphorylated IL-1 receptor-associated kinase I levels were measured using Western blot. TLR2 (/) and TLR4 (/) mice were challenged with oxidants, and inflammation was measured by monitoring cell Infiltration and KC levels. Measurements and Main Results: Oxidants evoked the release of CXCL8 from monocytes/macrophages; this was abrogated by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine or binding antibodies to TLR2 and was associated with the rapid phosphorylation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1. Oxidants added to HEK293 cells transfected with TLR2, TLR1/2, or TLR2/6 but not TLR4/MD2-CD14 or control HEK nulls resulted in the release of CXCL8. Oxidant challenge delivered intraperitoneally (2-24 hours) or by inhalation to the lungs (3 days) resulted in a robust Inflammation In wild-type mice. TLR2 (/) mice did not respond to oxidant challenge in either model. TLR4 (/) mice responded as wild-type mice to oxidants at 2 hours but as TLR2(-/-) mice at later time points. Conclusions: Oxidant-TLR2 interactions provide a signal that initiates the inflammatory response.
|Titolo:||Toll-like receptor 2 is essential for the sensing of oxidants during inflammation.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2009|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1.2 Articolo su rivista con ISSN|