Cryptococcosis primarily occurs in patients with impaired immune response. While pulmonary and/or cerebral involvement are more often described, there is limited experience of its presence in other sites. We present a case of hepatic cryptococcosis with possible pulmonary involvement in a 54-year-old male heart transplant recipient. Two months after heart transplantation, he developed a persistent, moderate dyspnea with fever and signs of liver damage. Diagnosis was made with liver biopsy for a concurrent reactivation of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection already present before transplant. Along with a mild chronic HBV hepatitis with fibrosis, we observed sinusoidal dilation and groups of bright, rounded, colorless cells with a central nucleus suggestive of cryptococci. Periodic acid-Schiff stain clearly showed encapsulated yeasts, which supported the diagnosis. Cryptococcal antigen was positive in serum and negative in the cerebrospinal fluid. Computed tomography scan of the chest demonstrated a mild interstitial infiltrate. The patient promptly responded to reduction of immunosuppressive therapy and antifungal treatment with amphotericin B lipid complex and flucytosine followed by maintenance treatment with fluconazole. Cryptococcosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis in immunocompromised hosts with dyspnea and signs of extrapulmonary involvement. Diagnosis of extrapulmonary and extraneural cryptococcosis is difficult and often fortuitous; a histopathological examination of tissues involved is probably warranted.
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