Introduction: Adherence to international guidelines is viewed as a prerequisite for optimal medical care delivery. Previously reported surveys for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) employed mailed questionnaires to urologists or patients resulting in conflicting degrees of agreement with existing guidelines. In the current study, contemporary information on the management of NMIBC was generated from a sample of Italian centers. Patients and Methods: Eight Italian referral centers for the treatment of NMIBC were asked to collect information relative to all consecutive patients with a histology-proven NMIBC undergoing a transurethral resection from January 1 to March 31, 2009. The primary study objective was to verify the level of adherence of disease management with European guidelines. Results: 344 patients resulted in being evaluable. 49.2% of high-risk patients underwent a repeat transurethral resection. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin was employed in 35% of cases, while chemotherapy was in 22%. An early single regimen was adopted in 136 patients and only in 1 out of 3 low-risk patients. High-risk NMIBC received bacillus Calmette-Guerin and chemotherapy as first-line therapy in 66 and 12.5% respectively. After 3 months, cystoscopy had been reported for 82.5% of patients with a recurrence rate of 13%. Conclusion: Adherence of Italian Institutions to EAU guidelines was optimal when reporting baseline variables. Significant degrees of discrepancy emerged in treatment choices. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
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