Objective: Water source and cigarette smoking are related to clinical characteristics and pathology of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Methods: Tumor number, dimension, G-grade, T-stage, recurrences, cigarette smoking and water supply were recorded in patients harboring Ta-T1G1-3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Results: Of 577 patients, 61% had multiple and 36% recurrent tumors. Two hundred and forty-one patients (42%) were current smokers and 188 (33%) were former smokers. Bottled water was the only drinkable source for 249 (45%) patients, municipal water supply for 177 (32%), artesian wells for 38 (7%), spring water for 7 (1%) and mixed source for 89 (16%). By adopting a cut-off of 30 years of smoking, patients affected by recurrent tumors varied from 22 to 43% (p = 0.0001). T1 tumors were more frequent in patients drinking nonbottled water (p = 0.03). Nonbottled supply was more frequent in never smokers (p = 0.015) and could represent a weak risk factor not detectable in smokers. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking correlates with the number of recurrences. T1 tumors were statistically more frequent in patients taking nonbottled drinking water. Chlorinated water supply was more frequent among patients who did not present cigarette smoking as a risk factor. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel
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