Objectives: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) is a common component in current dental adhesives. Several studies demonstrated HEMA cytotoxicity in different cell lines. Since recently new adhesive formulations without HEMA were suggested, the aim of our study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of new commercial HEMA-free dental adhesives in human pulp cells. Methods: Human pulpal cells (HPC) were plated in 96-multiwell plates for 24h and then exposed to different concentrations (0–0.75 mg/ml) of six dental adhesives (OptiBond FL, Beauty Bond, G-Bond, XenoV, CMF, AdheSe). The cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay after 24 hours incubation. Moreover, the effects of adhesives on cell proliferation was evaluated by Alamar Blue after 24h. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results: All adhesives tested decreased cell viability in a dose-related manner after a 24h exposure period. In a concentration range of 0-0.1 mg/ml, there was no substantial difference between the adhesive. At 0.1mg/ml concentration only OptiBond showed a significant decrease in cell vitality (25.70% ± 2.93%). 0.4 mg/ml caused a cytotoxic effect ranked as follows: OptiBond FL (15.35% ± 3.35%) > Beauty Bond (17.78% ± 4.91%) > G-Bond (27.93% ± 3,73%) > XenoV (29.53% ± 6.46%) > CMF (32.15% ± 0.34%) > AdheSe (33.39% ± 4.54%). At the concentration of 0.75 mg/ml also G-Bond caused a significant decrease in cell vitality. Moreover, after 24h OptiBond FL showed a significant dose dependent inhibitory effect on cells proliferation. Conclusions: Although toxicity might depend by adhesives composition, our results suggested that HEMA-free adhesives were less cytotoxic than those containing HEMA.
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