The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationships of the trochlear nerve with the surrounding structures through both endoscopic and microscopic perspectives. The aim was to assess the anatomy of the nerve and to carry out a thorough description of its entire course. A comprehensive anatomically and clinically oriented classification of its different segments is proposed. Forty human cadaveric fixed heads (20 specimens) were used for the dissection. The arterial and venous systems were injected with red and blue colored latex, respectively, in the transcranial dissection. For illustrative purposes, the arterial vessels were injected alone in endoscopic endonasal procedures. A CT scan was carried out on every head. Median supracerebellar infratentorial, subtemporal, fronto-temporo-orbito-zygomatic, and endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches were performed to expose the entire pathway of the nerve. A navigation system was used during the dissection process to perform the measurements and postoperatively to reconstruct, using dedicated software, a three-dimensional model of the different segments of the nerve. The trochlear nerve was divided into five segments: cisternal, tentorial, cavernous, fissural, and orbital. Detailed and comprehensive examination of the basic anatomical relationships through the view of transcranial, endoscope-assisted, and pure endoscopic endonasal approaches was achieved. As a result of a thorough study of its intra- and extradural pathways, an anatomic-, surgically, and clinically based classification of the trochlear nerve is proposed. Precise knowledge of the involved surgical anatomy is essential to safely access the supracerebellar region, middle fossa, parasellar area, and orbit

The trochlear nerve: microanatomic and endoscopic study.

IACONETTA, GIORGIO;
2013-01-01

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationships of the trochlear nerve with the surrounding structures through both endoscopic and microscopic perspectives. The aim was to assess the anatomy of the nerve and to carry out a thorough description of its entire course. A comprehensive anatomically and clinically oriented classification of its different segments is proposed. Forty human cadaveric fixed heads (20 specimens) were used for the dissection. The arterial and venous systems were injected with red and blue colored latex, respectively, in the transcranial dissection. For illustrative purposes, the arterial vessels were injected alone in endoscopic endonasal procedures. A CT scan was carried out on every head. Median supracerebellar infratentorial, subtemporal, fronto-temporo-orbito-zygomatic, and endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches were performed to expose the entire pathway of the nerve. A navigation system was used during the dissection process to perform the measurements and postoperatively to reconstruct, using dedicated software, a three-dimensional model of the different segments of the nerve. The trochlear nerve was divided into five segments: cisternal, tentorial, cavernous, fissural, and orbital. Detailed and comprehensive examination of the basic anatomical relationships through the view of transcranial, endoscope-assisted, and pure endoscopic endonasal approaches was achieved. As a result of a thorough study of its intra- and extradural pathways, an anatomic-, surgically, and clinically based classification of the trochlear nerve is proposed. Precise knowledge of the involved surgical anatomy is essential to safely access the supracerebellar region, middle fossa, parasellar area, and orbit
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/3879571
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