The authors used ultrasonography to measure carotid artery intima-media thickness in a cohort of antiretroviral-experienced patients. Overall, 52 patients were enrolled in the study. Twenty-two patients (42.3%) showed a IMT > 1 mm and among these 14 (26.9%) showed a atheromatous plaque. Data analysis showed that IMT > 1 mm was associated with the duration of HIV infection (p 0.03), nadir CD4 cell count (p < 0.01), and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between IMT and type or duration of antiretroviral therapy. These data confirm the direct role of HIV in the development of endothelial damage.
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