Distribution System Operator (DSO) is responsible for active and reactive power scheduling in a distribution system. DSO purchases its active and reactive power requirements from Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) as well as the wholesale electricity market. In this paper, a new economical/environmental operational scheduling method based on sequential day-ahead active and reactive power markets at distribution level is proposed to dispatch active and reactive powers in distribution systems with high penetration of DERs. In the proposed model, after day-ahead active power market was cleared the participants submit their reactive power bids and then the reactive power market will be settled. At distribution level, developing a Var market, in which DERs like synchronous machine-based Distributed Generation (DG) units and Wind Turbines (WTs) could offer their reactive power prices, DERs are motivated to actively participate in the Volt/VAr Control (VVC) problem. To achieve this purpose, based on the capability curves of considered DERs, innovative multi-component reactive power bidding structures for DERs are introduced. Moreover, the effect of reactive power market clearing on the active power scheduling is explicitly considered into the proposed model by rescheduling of active power by usage of energybalance service bids. On the other hand, environmental concerns that arise from the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators are included in the proposed model by employing CO2 emission penalty cost. The suggested reactive power market is cleared through a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization program. The effectiveness of the proposed scheduling model is investigated through a typical 22-bus distribution test system over a 24-h period.

Economic-environmental active and reactive power scheduling of modern distribution systems in presence of wind generations: A distribution market-based approach

SIANO, PIERLUIGI
2015

Abstract

Distribution System Operator (DSO) is responsible for active and reactive power scheduling in a distribution system. DSO purchases its active and reactive power requirements from Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) as well as the wholesale electricity market. In this paper, a new economical/environmental operational scheduling method based on sequential day-ahead active and reactive power markets at distribution level is proposed to dispatch active and reactive powers in distribution systems with high penetration of DERs. In the proposed model, after day-ahead active power market was cleared the participants submit their reactive power bids and then the reactive power market will be settled. At distribution level, developing a Var market, in which DERs like synchronous machine-based Distributed Generation (DG) units and Wind Turbines (WTs) could offer their reactive power prices, DERs are motivated to actively participate in the Volt/VAr Control (VVC) problem. To achieve this purpose, based on the capability curves of considered DERs, innovative multi-component reactive power bidding structures for DERs are introduced. Moreover, the effect of reactive power market clearing on the active power scheduling is explicitly considered into the proposed model by rescheduling of active power by usage of energybalance service bids. On the other hand, environmental concerns that arise from the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators are included in the proposed model by employing CO2 emission penalty cost. The suggested reactive power market is cleared through a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization program. The effectiveness of the proposed scheduling model is investigated through a typical 22-bus distribution test system over a 24-h period.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11386/4656518
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