t Hyperspectral images have a higher spectral resolution (i.e., a larger number of bands covering the electromagnetic spectrum), but a lower spatial resolution with respect to multispectral or panchromatic acquisitions. For increasing the capabilities of the data in terms of utilization and interpretation, hyperspectral images having both high spectral and spatial resolution are desired. This can be achieved by combining the hyperspectral image with a high spatial resolution panchromatic image. These techniques are generally known as pansharpening and can be divided into component substitution (CS) and multi-resolution analysis (MRA) based methods. In general, the CS methods result in fused images having high spatial quality but the fused images suffer from spectral distortions. On the other hand, images obtained using MRA techniques are not as sharp as CS methods but they are spectrally consistent. Both substitution and filtering approaches are considered adequate when applied to multispectral and PAN images, but have many drawbacks when the low-resolution image is a hyperspectral image. Thus, one of the main challenges in hyperspectral pansharpening is to improve the spatial resolution while preserving as much as possible of the original spectral information. An effective solution to these problems has been found in the use of hybrid approaches, combining the better spatial information of CS and the more accurate spectral information of MRA techniques. In general, in a hybrid approach a CS technique is used to project the original data into a low dimensionality space. Thus, the PAN image is fused with one or more features by means of MRA approach. Finally the inverse projection is used to obtain the enhanced image in the original data space. These methods, permit to effectively enhance the spatial resolution of the hyperspectral image without relevant spectral distortions and on the same time to reduce the computational load of the entire process. In particular, in this paper we focus our attention on the use of Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis (NLPCA) for the projection of the image into a low dimensionality feature space. However, if on one hand the NLPCA has been proved to better represent the intrinsic informationof hyperspectral images in the feature space, on the other hand an analysis of the impact of different fusion techniques applied to the nonlinear principal components in order to define the optimal framework for the hybrid pansharpening has not been carried out yet. More in particular, in this paper we analyze the overall impact of several widely used MRA pansharpening algorithms applied in the nonlinear feature space. The results obtained on both synthetic and real data demonstrate that an accurate selection of the pansharpening method can lead to an effective improvement of the enhanced hyperspectral image in terms of spectral quality and spatial consistency, as well as a strong reduction in the computational time.

Multi-resolution analysis techniques and nonlinear PCA for hybrid pansharpening applications

VIVONE, GEMINE;DALLA MURA, MAURO;RESTAINO, Rocco;
2016-01-01

Abstract

t Hyperspectral images have a higher spectral resolution (i.e., a larger number of bands covering the electromagnetic spectrum), but a lower spatial resolution with respect to multispectral or panchromatic acquisitions. For increasing the capabilities of the data in terms of utilization and interpretation, hyperspectral images having both high spectral and spatial resolution are desired. This can be achieved by combining the hyperspectral image with a high spatial resolution panchromatic image. These techniques are generally known as pansharpening and can be divided into component substitution (CS) and multi-resolution analysis (MRA) based methods. In general, the CS methods result in fused images having high spatial quality but the fused images suffer from spectral distortions. On the other hand, images obtained using MRA techniques are not as sharp as CS methods but they are spectrally consistent. Both substitution and filtering approaches are considered adequate when applied to multispectral and PAN images, but have many drawbacks when the low-resolution image is a hyperspectral image. Thus, one of the main challenges in hyperspectral pansharpening is to improve the spatial resolution while preserving as much as possible of the original spectral information. An effective solution to these problems has been found in the use of hybrid approaches, combining the better spatial information of CS and the more accurate spectral information of MRA techniques. In general, in a hybrid approach a CS technique is used to project the original data into a low dimensionality space. Thus, the PAN image is fused with one or more features by means of MRA approach. Finally the inverse projection is used to obtain the enhanced image in the original data space. These methods, permit to effectively enhance the spatial resolution of the hyperspectral image without relevant spectral distortions and on the same time to reduce the computational load of the entire process. In particular, in this paper we focus our attention on the use of Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis (NLPCA) for the projection of the image into a low dimensionality feature space. However, if on one hand the NLPCA has been proved to better represent the intrinsic informationof hyperspectral images in the feature space, on the other hand an analysis of the impact of different fusion techniques applied to the nonlinear principal components in order to define the optimal framework for the hybrid pansharpening has not been carried out yet. More in particular, in this paper we analyze the overall impact of several widely used MRA pansharpening algorithms applied in the nonlinear feature space. The results obtained on both synthetic and real data demonstrate that an accurate selection of the pansharpening method can lead to an effective improvement of the enhanced hyperspectral image in terms of spectral quality and spatial consistency, as well as a strong reduction in the computational time.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4664412
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