Secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) are enzymes detected in serum and biological fluids of patients with various inflammatory, autoimmune and allergic disorders. Different isoforms of sPLA2s are expressed and released by human inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils, eosinophils, T cells, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells. sPLA2s generate arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids thus contributing to the production of bioactive lipid mediators in inflammatory cells. However, sPLA2s also activate human inflammatory cells by mechanisms unrelated to their enzymatic activity. Several human and non-human sPLA2s induce degranulation of mast cells, neutrophils and eosinophils and activate exocytosis in macrophages. In addition some, but not all, sPLA2 isoforms promote cytokine and chemokine production from macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and endothelial cells. These effects are primarily mediated by binding of sPLA2s to specific membrane targets (heparan sulfate proteoglycans, M-type, N-type or mannose receptors) expressed on effector cells. Thus, sPLA2s may play an important role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory reactions by at least two mechanisms: production of lipid mediators and direct activation of inflammatory cells. Selective inhibitors of sPLA2-enzymatic activity and specific antagonists of sPLA2 receptors are current being tested for pharmacological treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Titolo:||Activation of human inflammatory cells by secreted phospholipases A2|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2006|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1.1 Articolo su rivista con DOI|