Secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) are enzymes released in plasma and extracellular fluids during inflammatory diseases. Because human group IB and X sPLA2s are expressed in the lung, we examined their effects on primary human lung macrophages (HLM). Both sPLA 2s induced TNF-α and IL-6 release in a concentration-dependent manner by increasing their mRNA expression. This effect was independent of their enzymatic activity because 1) the capacity of sPLA2s to mobilize arachidonic acid from HLM was unrelated to their ability to induce cytokine production; and 2) two catalytically inactive isoforms of group IB sPLA 2 (bromophenacyl bromide-inactivated human sPLA2 and the H48Q mutant of the porcine sPLA2) were as effective as the catalytically active sPLA2s in inducing cytokine production. HLM expressed the M-type receptor for sPLA2s at both mRNA and protein levels, as determined by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and flow cytometry. Me-indoxam, which decreases sPLA2 activity as well as binding to the M-type receptor, suppressed sPLA2-induced cytokine production. Incubation of HLM with the sPLA2s was associated with phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and a specific inhibitor of this pathway, PD98059, significantly reduced the production of IL-6 elicited by sPLA2s. In conclusion, two distinct sPLA2s produced in the human lung stimulate cytokine production by HLM via a mechanism that is independent of their enzymatic activity and involves activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. HLM express the M-type receptor, but its involvement in eliciting cytokine production deserves further investigation.
|Titolo:||Activation of cytokine production by secreted phospholipase A2 in human lung macrophages expressing the M-type receptor|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2005|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1.2 Articolo su rivista con ISSN|