GPBAR1 is a bile acid-activated receptor (BAR) for secondary bile acids, lithocholic (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), expressed in the enterohepatic tissues and in the vasculature by endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Despite that bile acids cause vasodilation, it is unclear why these effects involve GPBAR1, and the vascular phenotype of GPBAR1 deficient mice remains poorly defined. Previous studies have suggested a role for nitric oxide (NO) in regulatory activity exerted by GPBAR1 in liver endothelial cells. Hydrogen sulfide (H<inf>2</inf>S) is a vasodilatory agent generated in endothelial cells by cystathionines-γ-lyase (CSE). Here we demonstrate that GPBAR1 null mice had increased levels of primary and secondary bile acids and impaired vasoconstriction to phenylephrine. In aortic ring preparations, vasodilation caused by chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a weak GPBAR1 ligand and farnesoid-x-receptor agonist (FXR), was iberiotoxin-de-pendent and GPBAR1-independent. In contrast, vasodilation caused by LCA was GPBAR1 dependent and abrogated by propargyl-gly-cine, a CSE inhibitor, and by 5β-cholanic acid, a GPBAR1 antagonist, but not by N<sup>5</sup>-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine (l-NIO), an endothelial NO synthase inhibitor, or iberiotoxin, a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK<inf>Ca</inf>) channels antagonist. In venular and aortic endothelial (HUVEC and HAEC) cells GPBAR1 activation increases CSE expression/activity and H<inf>2</inf>S production. Two cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) sites (CREs) were identified in the CSE promoter. In addition, TLCA stimulates CSE phosphorylation on serine residues. In conclusion we demonstrate that GPBAR1 mediates the vasodilatory activity of LCA and regulates the expression/activity of CSE. Vasodilation caused by CDCA involves BKCa channels. The GPBAR1/CSE pathway might contribute to endothelial dysfunction and hyperdynamic circulation in liver cirrhosis.
|Titolo:||Cystathionine γ-lyase, a H<inf>2</inf>S-generating enzyme, is a GPBAR1-regulated gene and contributes to vasodilation caused by secondary bile acids|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1.1 Articolo su rivista con DOI|