The dynamics of granular mixtures, involved in several geophysical phenomena like rock avalanches and debris flows, is far from being completely understood. Several features of their motion, such as non-local and boundary effects, still represent open problems. An extensive experimental study on free-surface channelized granular flows is here presented, where the effects of the fixed boundaries are systematically investigated. The entire experimental data set is obtained by using a homogenous acetal-polymeric granular material and three different basal surfaces, allowing different kinematic boundary conditions. Velocity profiles at both the sidewall and the free surface are obtained by using high-speed cameras and the open-source particle image velocimetry code, PIVlab. Significantly, different sidewall velocity profiles are observed by varying the basal roughness and the flow depth. Owing to sidewall friction and non-local effects, such profiles exhibit a clear rheological stratification for high enough flow depths and they can be well described by recurring to composite functions, variously formed of linear, Bagnold and exponential scalings. Moreover, it has been discovered that transitions from one velocity profile to another are also possible on the same basal surface by merely varying the flow depth. This shape transition is due partly to the sidewall resistances, the basal boundary condition and, in particular, the occurrence/inhibition of basal grain rolling. In most of the experiments, the normal-to-bed velocity profiles and the velocity measurements at the free surface strongly suggest the occurrence of a secondary circulating flow, made possible by a chiefly collisional regime beneath the free surface.

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of the Fixed Boundaries in Channelized Dry Granular Flows

SARNO, Luca;CARLEO, LUIGI;PAPA, Maria Nicolina;VILLANI, Paolo
2018

Abstract

The dynamics of granular mixtures, involved in several geophysical phenomena like rock avalanches and debris flows, is far from being completely understood. Several features of their motion, such as non-local and boundary effects, still represent open problems. An extensive experimental study on free-surface channelized granular flows is here presented, where the effects of the fixed boundaries are systematically investigated. The entire experimental data set is obtained by using a homogenous acetal-polymeric granular material and three different basal surfaces, allowing different kinematic boundary conditions. Velocity profiles at both the sidewall and the free surface are obtained by using high-speed cameras and the open-source particle image velocimetry code, PIVlab. Significantly, different sidewall velocity profiles are observed by varying the basal roughness and the flow depth. Owing to sidewall friction and non-local effects, such profiles exhibit a clear rheological stratification for high enough flow depths and they can be well described by recurring to composite functions, variously formed of linear, Bagnold and exponential scalings. Moreover, it has been discovered that transitions from one velocity profile to another are also possible on the same basal surface by merely varying the flow depth. This shape transition is due partly to the sidewall resistances, the basal boundary condition and, in particular, the occurrence/inhibition of basal grain rolling. In most of the experiments, the normal-to-bed velocity profiles and the velocity measurements at the free surface strongly suggest the occurrence of a secondary circulating flow, made possible by a chiefly collisional regime beneath the free surface.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11386/4697718
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