The eight keys competences are defined at European level, which represent a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes considered necessary for personal development. Generally, teaching methods and didactics is in relationship, and in physical education and sport (PES) they are connected by the same theoretical basis. Which means, the educational process of teaching/learning carries out directly the skills instead to follow the logical steps: knowledge/skills/attitudes such as in math, natural sciences, mother tongue, second language. For these subjects, the students before learn the theoretical concepts (knowledge) and then making the skills. In teaching methods of (PES), the teacher/trainer traditionally imparts the orders with tutorials by giving the indication to execute exactly the movement. This methodology has the theoretical basis in the Cognitive approach where the mind is the center of learning action. This approach follows the Behaviorism and Cognitivist theories which suggest the exact and unique solution model of motor problem and have therefore a prescriptive nature. From another point of view, the teacher/trainer focus on environment educational setting and interpret learning as the research of motor solutions available of the each student/athlete relating to the context. It refers to another pedagogical paradigm for teaching methods: Phenomenology and Gestalt theories and have therefore a heuristic nature. This teaching method has the basis in ecological dynamic approach and has the environmental as center of learning process. Results are two kind: A) Cognitive approach refers to motor control theory of Closed loop, Open loop and Generalized motor program and the main teaching tools are tutorials: 1) demand 2) sequence 3) timing 4) executive model of movement learning 5) intensive activity; B) Ecological dynamic approach refers to motor control theory of Motor imagery and Freedom degrees and the movement has learnt without teacher support in a setting learning environment aimed at several problem solving. Motor imagery could be applied in first person when he reads himself and in third person when he reads other people and Freedom degrees is made by three consecutive steps: Reduction, Exploration and Capitalization. The teaching tools are the psychological group dynamic as circle time, cooperative learning, role playing, brain storming, peer education, tutorship, focus group and extensive activity. In conclusion, Cognitive approach is usually utilized in Sport to improve the performance whatever Ecological one is currently utilized in Physical education to increase the educative aim.

Motor learning and teaching method

Gaetano Raiola
2017

Abstract

The eight keys competences are defined at European level, which represent a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes considered necessary for personal development. Generally, teaching methods and didactics is in relationship, and in physical education and sport (PES) they are connected by the same theoretical basis. Which means, the educational process of teaching/learning carries out directly the skills instead to follow the logical steps: knowledge/skills/attitudes such as in math, natural sciences, mother tongue, second language. For these subjects, the students before learn the theoretical concepts (knowledge) and then making the skills. In teaching methods of (PES), the teacher/trainer traditionally imparts the orders with tutorials by giving the indication to execute exactly the movement. This methodology has the theoretical basis in the Cognitive approach where the mind is the center of learning action. This approach follows the Behaviorism and Cognitivist theories which suggest the exact and unique solution model of motor problem and have therefore a prescriptive nature. From another point of view, the teacher/trainer focus on environment educational setting and interpret learning as the research of motor solutions available of the each student/athlete relating to the context. It refers to another pedagogical paradigm for teaching methods: Phenomenology and Gestalt theories and have therefore a heuristic nature. This teaching method has the basis in ecological dynamic approach and has the environmental as center of learning process. Results are two kind: A) Cognitive approach refers to motor control theory of Closed loop, Open loop and Generalized motor program and the main teaching tools are tutorials: 1) demand 2) sequence 3) timing 4) executive model of movement learning 5) intensive activity; B) Ecological dynamic approach refers to motor control theory of Motor imagery and Freedom degrees and the movement has learnt without teacher support in a setting learning environment aimed at several problem solving. Motor imagery could be applied in first person when he reads himself and in third person when he reads other people and Freedom degrees is made by three consecutive steps: Reduction, Exploration and Capitalization. The teaching tools are the psychological group dynamic as circle time, cooperative learning, role playing, brain storming, peer education, tutorship, focus group and extensive activity. In conclusion, Cognitive approach is usually utilized in Sport to improve the performance whatever Ecological one is currently utilized in Physical education to increase the educative aim.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11386/4701476
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