Objective Only a few anatomic studies of the entire course of the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) have been reported. We analyzed all relationships of the 12th nerve with surrounding structures from the brainstem to the tongue through a microscopic perspective. A comprehensive anatomically and clinically oriented classification of its different segments is proposed. Methods Ten formalin-fixed adult human cadaveric heads (20 sides) were dissected with the aim to explore the entire course of cranial nerve XII via lateral suboccipital, far lateral partial, or total transcondylar routes. Different segments of the nerve were identified based on the hypoglossal course and its relationship with surrounding structures. Measurements of every portion of the nerve were taken in all specimens during dissection. Results The hypoglossal nerve was divided into 5 segments: cisternal, intracanalar, descending, horizontal, and ascending. Detailed and comprehensive examination of basic anatomic relationships through the view of different transcranial and endoscope-assisted approaches was performed. A new perspective of the hypoglossal canal is proposed, and the venous plexus surrounding the intracanalar segment of the nerve is described in detail. Conclusions Classification of 5 segments for the hypoglossal nerve seems anatomically valid, and it is surgically oriented with respect to all surgical approaches. Precise knowledge of the relationships with the surrounding structures may help to prevent some complications during surgery, and it is useful to explain, segment by segment, the pathogenic mechanisms for nerve injuries that are evidenced by lesions that exist along the entire intracranial and extracranial course.
|Titolo:||The Hypoglossal Nerve: Anatomical Study of Its Entire Course|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1.1 Articolo su rivista con DOI|