The 2016 World Health Organisation revised classification of lymphoma has sub-classified well-defined entities and added a number of provisional entities on the basis of new knowledge on genetic, epigenetics and phenotypical data; prognostic and predictive features are also part of this classification. New knowledge on well-defined entities further enlightens the mechanisms of lymphomagenesis, which are more complex and multifactorial than once believed. Therapies are also more complex because traditional clinical trials have been integrated with new drugs and compounds with unique mechanisms of actions against distinct molecular targets. As lymphoma acquires additional genetic and phenotypic features over the time, pathological assessment is also necessary. Histological evaluation and tissue collection by surgical biopsies are necessary for phenotypical and molecular purposes; however, these are demanding procedures for both the patient and the health care system. At the same time, the choice of the best treatment for a specific entity, in different phases and different patients requires information that may not be available when the biopsy is performed. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is successfully used in lymph nodes (LNs) in combination with different ancillary techniques and might be used to assess the phenotypic and genetic profile of specific targets and to get key information for therapy, in different phases and stages of the disease, with the option to re-check the same target over time, without surgical excision. This brief review describes LN-FNAC diagnostic criteria, current therapies for lymphomas and the potential role of LN-FNAC in selecting non-Hodgkin lymphomas patients for specific targeted treatments.

Lymph node fine-needle cytology in the era of personalised medicine. Is there a role?

Giudice V.;Selleri C.;Zeppa P.
2019

Abstract

The 2016 World Health Organisation revised classification of lymphoma has sub-classified well-defined entities and added a number of provisional entities on the basis of new knowledge on genetic, epigenetics and phenotypical data; prognostic and predictive features are also part of this classification. New knowledge on well-defined entities further enlightens the mechanisms of lymphomagenesis, which are more complex and multifactorial than once believed. Therapies are also more complex because traditional clinical trials have been integrated with new drugs and compounds with unique mechanisms of actions against distinct molecular targets. As lymphoma acquires additional genetic and phenotypic features over the time, pathological assessment is also necessary. Histological evaluation and tissue collection by surgical biopsies are necessary for phenotypical and molecular purposes; however, these are demanding procedures for both the patient and the health care system. At the same time, the choice of the best treatment for a specific entity, in different phases and different patients requires information that may not be available when the biopsy is performed. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is successfully used in lymph nodes (LNs) in combination with different ancillary techniques and might be used to assess the phenotypic and genetic profile of specific targets and to get key information for therapy, in different phases and stages of the disease, with the option to re-check the same target over time, without surgical excision. This brief review describes LN-FNAC diagnostic criteria, current therapies for lymphomas and the potential role of LN-FNAC in selecting non-Hodgkin lymphomas patients for specific targeted treatments.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11386/4726301
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