The development of efficient homogeneous catalysts for the synthesis of functionalized polyolefins is a challenging topic. Palladium(II) complexes with alpha-diimine ligands having a phenanthrene skeleton and 2,6-disubstituted aryl rings (Ar-BIP) were synthesized, characterized, and tested as precatalysts in the copolymerization of ethylene with methyl acrylate. The direct comparison with analogous complexes having the corresponding alpha-diimines with an acenaphthene skeleton (Ar-BIAN) was performed. X-ray characterization in the solid state and NMR analysis in solution of both neutral [Pd(Ar-BIP)(CH3)Cl] and monocationic [Pd(Ar-BIP)(CH3)(NCCH3)][PF6] complexes indicate that the Ar-BIP ligands have a higher Lewis basicity and are more strongly coordinated to the metal center in comparison to the Ar-BIAN counterparts. Therefore, the Pd(Ar-BIP) cationic complexes can be regarded as electron-rich metal cations. In addition, they create a higher steric congestion around palladium in comparison to Ar-BIAN, regardless of the substituents on the aryl rings. The monocationic species generate active catalysts for the ethylene/methyl acrylate copolymerization leading to copolymers with M-n values up to 37000 and a content of polar monomer of 5.3 mol %. A detailed study of the catalytic behavior points out that Pd(Ar-BIP) catalysts show a good affinity for the polar monomer, have a good thermal stability, and favor the cleavage of the catalyst resting state, leading to copolymers with M-w values higher than those of the macromolecules produced with the corresponding Pd(Ar-BIAN) under the same reaction conditions. NMR characterization of the produced copolymers points out that the polar monomer is inserted both at the end of the branches and into the main chain, with an enchainment more selective than that achieved when the copolymerization is carried out in dichloromethane. In situ NMR investigations allowed us to detect relevant intermediates of the catalytic cycle and shed light on the nature of possible deactivated species.

Palladium-Catalyzed Ethylene/Methyl Acrylate Copolymerization: Moving from the Acenaphthene to the Phenanthrene Skeleton of α-Diimine Ligands

D’Auria, Ilaria
Investigation
;
Pellecchia, Claudio
Supervision
;
MILANI, BARBARA
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
2019-01-01

Abstract

The development of efficient homogeneous catalysts for the synthesis of functionalized polyolefins is a challenging topic. Palladium(II) complexes with alpha-diimine ligands having a phenanthrene skeleton and 2,6-disubstituted aryl rings (Ar-BIP) were synthesized, characterized, and tested as precatalysts in the copolymerization of ethylene with methyl acrylate. The direct comparison with analogous complexes having the corresponding alpha-diimines with an acenaphthene skeleton (Ar-BIAN) was performed. X-ray characterization in the solid state and NMR analysis in solution of both neutral [Pd(Ar-BIP)(CH3)Cl] and monocationic [Pd(Ar-BIP)(CH3)(NCCH3)][PF6] complexes indicate that the Ar-BIP ligands have a higher Lewis basicity and are more strongly coordinated to the metal center in comparison to the Ar-BIAN counterparts. Therefore, the Pd(Ar-BIP) cationic complexes can be regarded as electron-rich metal cations. In addition, they create a higher steric congestion around palladium in comparison to Ar-BIAN, regardless of the substituents on the aryl rings. The monocationic species generate active catalysts for the ethylene/methyl acrylate copolymerization leading to copolymers with M-n values up to 37000 and a content of polar monomer of 5.3 mol %. A detailed study of the catalytic behavior points out that Pd(Ar-BIP) catalysts show a good affinity for the polar monomer, have a good thermal stability, and favor the cleavage of the catalyst resting state, leading to copolymers with M-w values higher than those of the macromolecules produced with the corresponding Pd(Ar-BIAN) under the same reaction conditions. NMR characterization of the produced copolymers points out that the polar monomer is inserted both at the end of the branches and into the main chain, with an enchainment more selective than that achieved when the copolymerization is carried out in dichloromethane. In situ NMR investigations allowed us to detect relevant intermediates of the catalytic cycle and shed light on the nature of possible deactivated species.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4731406
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