We carry out a mesocosms experiment to assess the impact of high-quality treated wastewater intended for agricultural reuse (HQWR) on freshwater bacteria seldom exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Effects were assessed by comparing the abundance and composition of bacterial communities as well as their resistance profile under control (source water from an unpolluted lake) and treatment conditions (source water mixed 1:1 with HQWR, with and without 5 mu g L-1 of cefotaxime). We investigated the effect of the different conditions on the abundance of genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams and carbapenems (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA, and blaKPC), fluoroquinolones (gnrS), tetracyclines (tetA), sulfonamides (sul2), macrolides (ermB), arsenic and cadmium (arsB and czcA, respectively), and on the gene encoding the Class 1 integron integrase (intI1).Bacterial communities exposed to HQWR showed a significant higher abundance of tetA, arsB, czcA, and intI1 genes, whereas those exposed to Cefotaxime-amended HQWR did not. Genes conferring resistance to carbapenems, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides were below detection limit in all treatments. Besides, the higher availability of nutrients under treatment conditions favored bacterial growth in comparison to those exposed to control conditions. Particularly, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were significantly enriched after 22 days of treatment exposure. The presence of cefotaxime (a third generation cephalosporine) in the feeding medium caused an enrichment of bacterial communities in sequences affiliated to Acinetobacter thus suggesting that these resistant forms may possess resistance genes other than those studied here (blaCTX-M, blaOXA, and blaKPC). Although derived from a mesocosm experiment in continuous cultures, our results call attention to the need of refined regulations regarding the use of reclaimed water in agriculture since even high-quality treated wastewater may lead to undesired effects on receiving bacterial communities in terms of composition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

High-quality treated wastewater causes remarkable changes in natural microbial communities and intI1 gene abundance

Fiorentino A.;
2019-01-01

Abstract

We carry out a mesocosms experiment to assess the impact of high-quality treated wastewater intended for agricultural reuse (HQWR) on freshwater bacteria seldom exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Effects were assessed by comparing the abundance and composition of bacterial communities as well as their resistance profile under control (source water from an unpolluted lake) and treatment conditions (source water mixed 1:1 with HQWR, with and without 5 mu g L-1 of cefotaxime). We investigated the effect of the different conditions on the abundance of genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams and carbapenems (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA, and blaKPC), fluoroquinolones (gnrS), tetracyclines (tetA), sulfonamides (sul2), macrolides (ermB), arsenic and cadmium (arsB and czcA, respectively), and on the gene encoding the Class 1 integron integrase (intI1).Bacterial communities exposed to HQWR showed a significant higher abundance of tetA, arsB, czcA, and intI1 genes, whereas those exposed to Cefotaxime-amended HQWR did not. Genes conferring resistance to carbapenems, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides were below detection limit in all treatments. Besides, the higher availability of nutrients under treatment conditions favored bacterial growth in comparison to those exposed to control conditions. Particularly, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were significantly enriched after 22 days of treatment exposure. The presence of cefotaxime (a third generation cephalosporine) in the feeding medium caused an enrichment of bacterial communities in sequences affiliated to Acinetobacter thus suggesting that these resistant forms may possess resistance genes other than those studied here (blaCTX-M, blaOXA, and blaKPC). Although derived from a mesocosm experiment in continuous cultures, our results call attention to the need of refined regulations regarding the use of reclaimed water in agriculture since even high-quality treated wastewater may lead to undesired effects on receiving bacterial communities in terms of composition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4731494
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