"Neapolitan limmo" is an ancient and rare sweet Mediterranean lime, now almost extinct but used until a few decades ago for the production of a fragrant liqueur called the "four citrus fruits". The objective of this work was to compare, through the use of chemical (flavonoids, volatile organic compounds, and chiral compounds) and molecular (DNA fingerprint based on RAPD-PCR) markers, the residual population of Neapolitan limmo with other populations of sweet limes, identified in Calabria and known as "lemoncetta Locrese". We report for the first time specific botanical characteristics of the two fruits and unequivocally show that the ancient sweet Mediterranean limes Neapolitan limmo and lemoncetta Locrese are synonyms of the same Citrus species. Owing to the biodiversity conserved in their places of origin, it will now be possible to recover, enhance and implement the use of this ancient sweet lime for agro-industrial purposes.
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