Adiantum philippense (A. philippense), an ethnomedicinally important fern, has become an interesting herb in the search for novel bioactive metabolites, which can also be used as therapeutic agents. Primarily, in this study, A. philippense crude extract was screened for its phytochemical constituents, antagonistic potential, and effect on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation against common food pathogens. Phytochemical profiling of A. philippense was carried out by using High Resolution- Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (HR-LCMS) followed by antibacterial activity via agar cup/well diffusion, broth microdilution susceptibility methods, and growth curve analysis. Antibiofilm potency and efficacy were assessed on the development, formation, and texture of biofilms through light microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and the assessment of exopolysaccharide production. Correspondingly, a checkerboard test was performed to evaluate the combinatorial effect of A. philippense and chloramphenicol. Lastly, molecular docking studies of identified phytochemicals with adhesin proteins of tested food pathogens, which helps the bacteria in surface attachment and leads to biofilm formation, were assessed. A. philippense crude extract was found to be active against all tested food pathogens, displaying the rapid time-dependent kinetics of bacterial killing. A. philippense crude extract also impedes the biofilm matrix by reducing the total content of exopolysaccharide, and, likewise, the microscopic images revealed a great extent of disruption in the architecture of biofilms. A synergy was observed between A. philippense crude extract and chloramphenicol for E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa, whereas an additive effect was observed for S. flexneri. Various bioactive phytochemicals were categorized from A. philippense crude extract using HR-LCMS. The molecular docking of these identified phytochemicals was interrelated with the active site residues of adhesin proteins, IcsA, Sortase A, OprD, EspA, and FimH from S. flexneri, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli, respectively. Thus, our findings represent the bioactivity and potency of A. philippense crude extract against food pathogens not only in their planktonic forms but also against/in biofilms for the first time. We have also correlated these findings with the possible mechanism of biofilm inhibition via targeting adhesin proteins, which could be explored further to design new bioactive compounds against biofilm producing foodborne bacterial pathogens.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.