Plants produce a vast array of biomolecules with beneficial effects for human health. In this study, polyphenol and anthocyanin-rich extracts (PAE) from pigmented tubers of Solanum tuberosum L. varieties "Blue Star", "Magenta Love", and "Double Fun" in comparison with the more extensively studied "Vitelotte" were evaluated and compared for antiproliferative effects in human leukemia cells, and their phytochemical and genetic profiles were determined. In U937 cells, upon treatment with PAE, it was possible to reveal the expression of specific apoptotic players, such as caspase 8, 9, 3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), as well as the induction of monocyte and granulocyte differentiation. A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) investigation revealed the presence of polyphenolic compounds in all the varieties of potatoes analyzed, among which caffeoyl and feruloyl quinic acid derivatives were the most abundant, as well as several acylated anthocyanins. Each pigmented variety was genotyped by DNA-based molecular markers, and flavonoid-related transcription factors were profiled in tubers in order to better characterize these outstanding resources and contribute to their exploitation in breeding. Interesting biological activities were observed for "Blue Star" and "Vitelotte" varieties with respect to the minor or no effect of the "Double Fun" variety.
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