– OBJECTIVE: Pathogens colonizing the intestinal or urinary tract such as enterococci or Gram-negative bacilli can cause prosthetic joint infection (PJI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: PJI undergoing 2-stage exchange, referred to the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Cotugno Hospital of Naples and the Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli of Rome over a 7-year period (2009-2015) for Infectious Diseases (ID) consultation were included. Demographic data, detailed information about previous or underlying diseases, findings of the clinical examination, and results of laboratory investigations were analyzed. The cure was defined by the disappearance of clinical, laboratory, and radiological evidence of PJI 96 week after the discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: Thirty-one cases of PJI sustained by Enterococci were included (16 early infections, 13 delayed infections, and 2 late infections). Median age was 73 years (range 39-83), 39% were males. Comorbidities related to an increased risk of infection were reported in 17 (55%) cases. Joint pain interfering with daily living was reported in 27 (87%) cases, fever in 7 with early infection and in no case with delayed or late infection (7/17 vs. 0/14, Odds ratio undefined, p=0.01). Local inflammation and joint effusion were reported in 29 (93%) cases, sinus tract in 25 (81%). Enterococcus faecalis was the etiologic agent in 28 (90%) cases, E. faecium in 2 (6%), E. casseliflavus in 1 (3%). Eleven cases were polymicrobial. Favourable outcome was reported in 20 (65%) cases. Patients with comorbidities reported more frequently an unfavourable outcome (9/17 vs. 2/14, Odds ratio 6.7, 95% CI 1.1-39.8; p=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities should arise the suspect of infection by enterococci. Associative protocols, considering drugs active against biofilm should be considered in the cases with enterococcal infection.
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