In western countries, cardiovascular (CV) disease and cancer are the leading causes of death in the ageing population. Recent epidemiological data suggest that cancer is more frequent in patients with prevalent or incident CV disease, in particular, heart failure (HF). Indeed, there is a tight link in terms of shared risk factors and mechanisms between HF and cancer. HF induced by anticancer therapies has been extensively studied, primarily focusing on the toxic effects that anti-tumour treatments exert on cardiomyocytes. In this Cardio-Oncology update, members of the ESC Working Groups of Myocardial Function and Cellular Biology of the Heart discuss novel evidence interconnecting cardiac dysfunction and cancer via pathways in which cardiomyocytes may be involved but are not central. In particular, the multiple roles of cardiac stromal cells (endothelial cells and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells are highlighted. Also, the gut microbiota is depicted as a new player at the crossroads between HF and cancer. Finally, the role of non-coding RNAs in Cardio-Oncology is also addressed. All these insights are expected to fuel additional research efforts in the field of Cardio-Oncology.
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