d-Amino acids were believed to occur only in bacteria and invertebrates. Today, it is well known that d-amino acids are also present in mammalian tissues in a considerable amount. In particular, high levels of free d-serine (d-Ser) and d-aspartate (d-Asp) are found in the brain. While the functions of d-Ser are well known, many questions remain unanswered regarding the role of d-Asp in the central nervous system. d-Asp is very abundant at the embryonic stage, while it strongly decreases after birth because of the expression of d-aspartate oxidase (Ddo) enzyme, which catalyzes the oxidation of this d-amino acid into oxaloacetate, ammonium, and hydrogen peroxide. Pharmacologically, d-Asp acts as an endogenous agonist of N-methyl d-aspartate and mGlu5 receptors, which are known to control fundamental brain processes, including brain development, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. In this work, we studied a recently generated knockin mouse model (R26ddo/ddo), which was designed to express DDO beginning at the zygotic stage. This strategy enables d-Asp to be almost eliminated in both prenatal and postnatal lives. To understand which biochemical pathways are affected by depletion of d-Asp, in this study, we carried out a metabolomic and lipidomic study of ddo knockin brains at different stages of embryonic and postnatal development, combining nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) techniques. Our study shows that d-Asp deficiency in the brain influences amino acid pathways such as threonine, glycine, alanine, valine, and glutamate. Interestingly, d-Asp is also correlated with metabolites involved in brain development and functions such as choline, creatine, phosphocholine (PCho), glycerophosphocholine (GPCho), sphingolipids, and glycerophospholipids, as well as metabolites involved in brain energy metabolism, such as GPCho, glucose, and lactate.

Prenatal and Early Postnatal Cerebral d -Aspartate Depletion Influences l -Amino Acid Pathways, Bioenergetic processes, and Developmental Brain Metabolism

Grimaldi M.;Marino C.;Buonocore M.;Santoro A.;Sommella E.;Merciai F.;Salviati E.;Campiglia P.;D'Ursi A. M.
2021-01-01

Abstract

d-Amino acids were believed to occur only in bacteria and invertebrates. Today, it is well known that d-amino acids are also present in mammalian tissues in a considerable amount. In particular, high levels of free d-serine (d-Ser) and d-aspartate (d-Asp) are found in the brain. While the functions of d-Ser are well known, many questions remain unanswered regarding the role of d-Asp in the central nervous system. d-Asp is very abundant at the embryonic stage, while it strongly decreases after birth because of the expression of d-aspartate oxidase (Ddo) enzyme, which catalyzes the oxidation of this d-amino acid into oxaloacetate, ammonium, and hydrogen peroxide. Pharmacologically, d-Asp acts as an endogenous agonist of N-methyl d-aspartate and mGlu5 receptors, which are known to control fundamental brain processes, including brain development, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. In this work, we studied a recently generated knockin mouse model (R26ddo/ddo), which was designed to express DDO beginning at the zygotic stage. This strategy enables d-Asp to be almost eliminated in both prenatal and postnatal lives. To understand which biochemical pathways are affected by depletion of d-Asp, in this study, we carried out a metabolomic and lipidomic study of ddo knockin brains at different stages of embryonic and postnatal development, combining nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) techniques. Our study shows that d-Asp deficiency in the brain influences amino acid pathways such as threonine, glycine, alanine, valine, and glutamate. Interestingly, d-Asp is also correlated with metabolites involved in brain development and functions such as choline, creatine, phosphocholine (PCho), glycerophosphocholine (GPCho), sphingolipids, and glycerophospholipids, as well as metabolites involved in brain energy metabolism, such as GPCho, glucose, and lactate.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4765535
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