Background/Aims: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a membrane-derived bioactive phospholipid involved in many lung physiological and pathological processes. Higher levels of S1P have been registered in a broad range of respiratory diseases, including inflammatory disorders and cancer. The aim of our study was to understand the role of S1P in healthy versus tumor cells after Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) activation, well-known modulators of sphingolipid metabolism. Methods: Lung adenocarcinoma cells and non-pathological human fibroblasts were stimulated with unmethylated Cytosine phosphate Guanosine (CpG), the TLR9 ligand, and S1P-dependent TNF-α release was evaluated by means of ELISA. Immunofluorescence and LC-MS/MS analysis were performed to evaluate/quantify S1P generation following TLR9 activation. Results: We found that S1P was involved in TLR9-induced TNF-α release in that the inhibition of both ceramidase and sphingosine kinase I/II (SPHK I/II) significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α after TLR9 triggering in lung adenocarcinoma cells. These results were not observed in healthy fibroblasts, implying that this pathway was mainly involved in pathological conditions. Moreover, the activation of TLR4 by means of LPS did not have similar effects as in the case of CpG-stimulated TLR9. Importantly, the activation of TLR9 induced S1P generation and allowed it to interact on the outside membrane receptor S1P1 and S1P3 via the efflux through its membrane transporter SPNS2. Indeed, both the blockade of S1P3 and the transporter SPNS2 significantly reduced the activity of S1P on TNF-α release from lung adenocarcinoma cells. Conclusion: Our study identifies a novel inflammatory pathway in that TLR9 increases the pro-inflammatory cytokine release, such as TNF-α, via the induction of a ceramide/S1P imbalance in favor of S1P, adding a novel puzzle piece in TLR9-orchestrated inflammatory pathway and shedding more light on the role of the higher levels of S1P during inflammatory conditions.

Sphingosine-1-phosphate contributes to TLR9-induced TNF-α release in lung tumor cells

Terlizzi M.
;
Colarusso C.;Ferraro G.;Monti M. C.;Pinto A.;Sorrentino R.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Background/Aims: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a membrane-derived bioactive phospholipid involved in many lung physiological and pathological processes. Higher levels of S1P have been registered in a broad range of respiratory diseases, including inflammatory disorders and cancer. The aim of our study was to understand the role of S1P in healthy versus tumor cells after Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) activation, well-known modulators of sphingolipid metabolism. Methods: Lung adenocarcinoma cells and non-pathological human fibroblasts were stimulated with unmethylated Cytosine phosphate Guanosine (CpG), the TLR9 ligand, and S1P-dependent TNF-α release was evaluated by means of ELISA. Immunofluorescence and LC-MS/MS analysis were performed to evaluate/quantify S1P generation following TLR9 activation. Results: We found that S1P was involved in TLR9-induced TNF-α release in that the inhibition of both ceramidase and sphingosine kinase I/II (SPHK I/II) significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α after TLR9 triggering in lung adenocarcinoma cells. These results were not observed in healthy fibroblasts, implying that this pathway was mainly involved in pathological conditions. Moreover, the activation of TLR4 by means of LPS did not have similar effects as in the case of CpG-stimulated TLR9. Importantly, the activation of TLR9 induced S1P generation and allowed it to interact on the outside membrane receptor S1P1 and S1P3 via the efflux through its membrane transporter SPNS2. Indeed, both the blockade of S1P3 and the transporter SPNS2 significantly reduced the activity of S1P on TNF-α release from lung adenocarcinoma cells. Conclusion: Our study identifies a novel inflammatory pathway in that TLR9 increases the pro-inflammatory cytokine release, such as TNF-α, via the induction of a ceramide/S1P imbalance in favor of S1P, adding a novel puzzle piece in TLR9-orchestrated inflammatory pathway and shedding more light on the role of the higher levels of S1P during inflammatory conditions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4765842
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