Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are molecules involved in signal transduction pathways with both beneficial and detrimental effects on human cells. ROS are generated by many cellular processes including mitochondrial respiration, metabolism and enzymatic activities. In physiological conditions, ROS levels are well-balanced by antioxidative detoxification systems. In contrast, in pathological conditions such as cardiovascular, neurological and cancer diseases, ROS production exceeds the antioxidative detoxification capacity of cells, leading to cellular damages and death. In this review, we will first describe the biology and mechanisms of ROS mediated oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease. Second, we will review the role of oxidative stress mediated by oncological treatments in inducing cardiovascular disease. Lastly, we will discuss the strategies that potentially counteract the oxidative stress in order to fight the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease, including that induced by oncological treatments.
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