Sodium effects on proteinuria are debated. This observational, cross-sectional, population-based study investigated relationships to proteinuria and albuminuria of sodium intake assessed as urinary sodium/creatinine ratio (NaCR). In 482 men and 454 women aged 35–94 years from the Moli-sani study, data were collected for the following: urinary NaCR (independent variable); urinary total proteins/creatinine ratio (PCR, mg/g), urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR, mg/g), and urinary non-albumin-proteins/creatinine ratio (calculated as PCR minus ACR) (dependent variables). High values were defined as PCR ≥ 150 mg/g, ACR ≥ 30 mg/g, and urinary non-albumin-proteins/creatinine ratio ≥ 120 mg/g. Urinary variables were measured in first-void morning urine. Skewed variables were log-transformed in analyses. The covariates list included sex, age, energy intake, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, estimated urinary creatinine excretion, smoking, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease, reported treatment with antihypertensive drug, inhibitor or blocker of the renin-angiotensin system, diuretic, and log-transformed data of total physical activity, leisure physical activity, alcohol intake, and urinary ratios of urea nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus to creatinine. In multivariable linear regression, standardized beta coefficients of urinary NaCR were positive with PCR (women and men = 0.280 and 0.242, 95% confidence interval = 0.17/0.39 and 0.13/0.35, p < 0.001), ACR (0.310 and 0.265, 0.20/0.42 and 0.16/0.38, p < 0.001), and urinary non-albumin-proteins/creatinine ratio (0.247 and 0.209, 0.14/0.36 and 0.09/0.33, p < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression, higher quintile of urinary NaCR associated with odds ratio of 1.81 for high PCR (1.55/2.12, p < 0.001), 0.51 of 1.62 for high ACR (1.35/1.95, p < 0.001), and of 1.84 for high urinary non-albumin proteins/creatinine ratio (1.58/2.16, p < 0.001). Findings were consistent in subgroups. Data indicate independent positive associations of an index of sodium intake with proteinuria and albuminuria in the population.

Sodium intake and proteinuria/albuminuria in the population—observational, cross-sectional study

Cavallo P.;Zulli E.;Villa R.;Veneziano R.;
2021

Abstract

Sodium effects on proteinuria are debated. This observational, cross-sectional, population-based study investigated relationships to proteinuria and albuminuria of sodium intake assessed as urinary sodium/creatinine ratio (NaCR). In 482 men and 454 women aged 35–94 years from the Moli-sani study, data were collected for the following: urinary NaCR (independent variable); urinary total proteins/creatinine ratio (PCR, mg/g), urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR, mg/g), and urinary non-albumin-proteins/creatinine ratio (calculated as PCR minus ACR) (dependent variables). High values were defined as PCR ≥ 150 mg/g, ACR ≥ 30 mg/g, and urinary non-albumin-proteins/creatinine ratio ≥ 120 mg/g. Urinary variables were measured in first-void morning urine. Skewed variables were log-transformed in analyses. The covariates list included sex, age, energy intake, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, estimated urinary creatinine excretion, smoking, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease, reported treatment with antihypertensive drug, inhibitor or blocker of the renin-angiotensin system, diuretic, and log-transformed data of total physical activity, leisure physical activity, alcohol intake, and urinary ratios of urea nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus to creatinine. In multivariable linear regression, standardized beta coefficients of urinary NaCR were positive with PCR (women and men = 0.280 and 0.242, 95% confidence interval = 0.17/0.39 and 0.13/0.35, p < 0.001), ACR (0.310 and 0.265, 0.20/0.42 and 0.16/0.38, p < 0.001), and urinary non-albumin-proteins/creatinine ratio (0.247 and 0.209, 0.14/0.36 and 0.09/0.33, p < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression, higher quintile of urinary NaCR associated with odds ratio of 1.81 for high PCR (1.55/2.12, p < 0.001), 0.51 of 1.62 for high ACR (1.35/1.95, p < 0.001), and of 1.84 for high urinary non-albumin proteins/creatinine ratio (1.58/2.16, p < 0.001). Findings were consistent in subgroups. Data indicate independent positive associations of an index of sodium intake with proteinuria and albuminuria in the population.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11386/4769775
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