Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most frequent glial tumor, with almost 3 new cases per 100,000 people per year. Despite treatment, the prognosis for GBM patients remains extremely poor, with a median survival of 14.6 months, and a 5‑year survival less than 5%. It is generally believed that GBM creates a highly immunosuppressive microenvironment, sustained by the expression of immune‑regulatory factors, including inhibi‑ tory immune checkpoints, on both infiltrating cells and tumor cells. However, the trials assessing the efficacy of current immune checkpoint inhibitors in GBM are still disappointing. In the present study, the expression levels of several inhibitory immune checkpoints in GBM (CD276, VTCN1, CD47, PVR, TNFRSF14, CD200, LGALS9, NECTIN2 and CD48) were characterized in order to evaluate their potential as prognostic and eventually, therapeutic targets. Among the investigated immune checkpoints, TNFRSF14 and NECTIN2 were identified as the most promising targets in GBM. In particular, a higher TNFRSF14 expression was associated with worse overall survival and disease‑free survival, and with a lower Th1 response.
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