Differential diagnosis of patients with Chronic Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) is rather challenging, owing to the lack of objective approaches highlighting residual awareness. Sophisticated functional neuroimaging have provided high diagnostic value, but their application in the clinical setting is limited due to their relative complexity, cost, availability and poor collaboration of persons with DoC. By using a specific ultrasound-based methodology, namely Transcranial B-mode Parenchymal Sonography (TCS), it is possible to obtain images of the main parenchymal brain structures. We assessed the TCS abnormalities in three patients with DoC, demonstrating widespread alterations of brain parenchyma morphology that matched to MRI findings and were associated with the degree of consciousness disorders. Thus, TCS might represent a valuable tool for routine assessment and follow-up of brain structures functioning of patients with DoC, potentially helping in differential diagnosis and prognosis.
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