In severe muscle injury, skeletal muscle tissue structure and functionality can be repaired through the involvement of several cell types, such as muscle stem cells, and innate immune responses. However, the exact mechanisms behind muscle tissue regeneration, homeostasis, and plasticity are still under investigation, and the discovery of pathways and cell types involved in muscle repair can open the way for novel therapeutic approaches, such as cell-based therapies involving stem cells and peripheral blood mononucleate cells. Indeed, peripheral cell infusions are a new therapy for muscle healing, likely because autologous peripheral blood infusion at the site of injury might enhance innate immune responses, especially those driven by macrophages. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on functions of stem cells and macrophages in skeletal muscle repairs and their roles as components of a promising cell-based therapies for muscle repair and regeneration.
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