Glyphosate is widely used worldwide as a potent herbicide. Due to its ubiquitous use, it is detectable in air, water and foodstuffs and can accumulate in human biological fluids and tissues representing a severe human health risk. In plants, glyphosate acts as an inhibitor of the shi-kimate pathway, which is absent in vertebrates. Due to this, international scientific authorities have long‐considered glyphosate as a compound that has no or weak toxicity in humans. Howev-er, increasing evidence has highlighted the toxicity of glyphosate and its formulations in animals and human cells and tissues. Thus, despite the extension of the authorization of the use of glypho-sate in Europe until 2022, several countries have begun to take precautionary measures to reduce its diffusion. Glyphosate has been detected in urine, blood and maternal milk and has been found to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in vitro and in animal models directly or indirectly through its metabolite, ami-nomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). This review aims to summarize the more relevant findings on the biological effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of glyphosate, with a particular focus on glyphosateʹs potential to induce inflammation, DNA damage and alterations in gene expression profiles as well as adverse effects on reproduction and development.

Pleiotropic outcomes of glyphosate exposure: From organ damage to effects on inflammation, cancer, reproduction and development

Marino M.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Viggiano A.
Supervision
;
Nori S. L.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Santoro A.
Conceptualization
2021-01-01

Abstract

Glyphosate is widely used worldwide as a potent herbicide. Due to its ubiquitous use, it is detectable in air, water and foodstuffs and can accumulate in human biological fluids and tissues representing a severe human health risk. In plants, glyphosate acts as an inhibitor of the shi-kimate pathway, which is absent in vertebrates. Due to this, international scientific authorities have long‐considered glyphosate as a compound that has no or weak toxicity in humans. Howev-er, increasing evidence has highlighted the toxicity of glyphosate and its formulations in animals and human cells and tissues. Thus, despite the extension of the authorization of the use of glypho-sate in Europe until 2022, several countries have begun to take precautionary measures to reduce its diffusion. Glyphosate has been detected in urine, blood and maternal milk and has been found to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in vitro and in animal models directly or indirectly through its metabolite, ami-nomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). This review aims to summarize the more relevant findings on the biological effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of glyphosate, with a particular focus on glyphosateʹs potential to induce inflammation, DNA damage and alterations in gene expression profiles as well as adverse effects on reproduction and development.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4773723
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