Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prominent neurodegenerative diseases, which impairs cognitive function in afflicted individuals. AD results in gradual decay of neuronal function as a consequence of diverse degenerating events. Several neuroimmune players (such as cytokines and growth factors that are key players in maintaining CNS homeostasis) turn aberrant during crosstalk between the innate and adaptive immunities. This aberrance underlies neuroinflammation and drives neuronal cells toward apoptotic decline. Neuroinflammation involves microglial activation and has been shown to exacerbate AD. This review attempted to elucidate the role of cytokines, growth factors, and associated mechanisms implicated in the course of AD, especially with neu-roinflammation. We also evaluated the propensities and specific mechanism(s) of cytokines and growth factors impacting neuron upon apoptotic decline and further shed light on the availability and accessibility of cytokines across the blood-brain barrier and choroid plexus in AD pathophysi-ology. The pathogenic and the protective roles of macrophage migration and inhibitory factors, neu-rotrophic factors, hematopoietic-related growth factors, TAU phosphorylation, advanced glycation end products, complement system, and glial cells in AD and neuropsychiatric pathology were also discussed. Taken together, the emerging roles of these factors in AD pathology emphasize the im-portance of building novel strategies for an effective therapeutic/neuropsychiatric management of AD in clinics.

The potential role of cytokines and growth factors in the pathogenesis of alzheimer’s disease

De Feo V.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prominent neurodegenerative diseases, which impairs cognitive function in afflicted individuals. AD results in gradual decay of neuronal function as a consequence of diverse degenerating events. Several neuroimmune players (such as cytokines and growth factors that are key players in maintaining CNS homeostasis) turn aberrant during crosstalk between the innate and adaptive immunities. This aberrance underlies neuroinflammation and drives neuronal cells toward apoptotic decline. Neuroinflammation involves microglial activation and has been shown to exacerbate AD. This review attempted to elucidate the role of cytokines, growth factors, and associated mechanisms implicated in the course of AD, especially with neu-roinflammation. We also evaluated the propensities and specific mechanism(s) of cytokines and growth factors impacting neuron upon apoptotic decline and further shed light on the availability and accessibility of cytokines across the blood-brain barrier and choroid plexus in AD pathophysi-ology. The pathogenic and the protective roles of macrophage migration and inhibitory factors, neu-rotrophic factors, hematopoietic-related growth factors, TAU phosphorylation, advanced glycation end products, complement system, and glial cells in AD and neuropsychiatric pathology were also discussed. Taken together, the emerging roles of these factors in AD pathology emphasize the im-portance of building novel strategies for an effective therapeutic/neuropsychiatric management of AD in clinics.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4774463
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 5
  • Scopus 30
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 26
social impact