Background: A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors including age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and tobacco use, has been reported in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who experienced adverse outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane, Web of Sciences, and SCOPUS were searched for retrospective or prospective observational studies reporting data on cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. Univariable and multivariable age-adjusted analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between cardiovascular risk factors and the occurrence of in-hospital death. Results: The analysis included 45 studies enrolling 18,300 patients. The pooled estimate of in-hospital mortality was 12% (95% CI 9–15%). The univariable meta-regression analysis showed a significant association between age (coefficient: 1.06; 95% CI 1.04–1.09; p < 0.001), diabetes (coefficient: 1.04; 95% CI 1.02–1.07; p < 0.001) and hypertension (coefficient: 1.01; 95% CI 1.01–1.03; p = 0.013) with in-hospital death. Male sex and smoking did not significantly affect mortality. At multivariable age-adjusted meta-regression analysis, diabetes was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (coefficient: 1.02; 95% CI 1.01–1.05; p = 0.043); conversely, hypertension was no longer significant after adjustment for age (coefficient: 1.00; 95% CI 0.99–1.01; p = 0.820). A significant association between age and in-hospital mortality was confirmed in all multivariable models. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that older age and diabetes are associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. Conversely, male sex, hypertension, and smoking did not independently correlate with fatal outcome.

Cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: systematic review and meta-analysis of 45 studies and 18,300 patients

Silverio A.;Di Maio M.;Esposito L.;Iuliano G.;Bellino M.;Baldi C.;De Luca G.;Ciccarelli M.;Vecchione C.;Galasso G.
2021

Abstract

Background: A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors including age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and tobacco use, has been reported in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who experienced adverse outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane, Web of Sciences, and SCOPUS were searched for retrospective or prospective observational studies reporting data on cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. Univariable and multivariable age-adjusted analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between cardiovascular risk factors and the occurrence of in-hospital death. Results: The analysis included 45 studies enrolling 18,300 patients. The pooled estimate of in-hospital mortality was 12% (95% CI 9–15%). The univariable meta-regression analysis showed a significant association between age (coefficient: 1.06; 95% CI 1.04–1.09; p < 0.001), diabetes (coefficient: 1.04; 95% CI 1.02–1.07; p < 0.001) and hypertension (coefficient: 1.01; 95% CI 1.01–1.03; p = 0.013) with in-hospital death. Male sex and smoking did not significantly affect mortality. At multivariable age-adjusted meta-regression analysis, diabetes was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (coefficient: 1.02; 95% CI 1.01–1.05; p = 0.043); conversely, hypertension was no longer significant after adjustment for age (coefficient: 1.00; 95% CI 0.99–1.01; p = 0.820). A significant association between age and in-hospital mortality was confirmed in all multivariable models. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that older age and diabetes are associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. Conversely, male sex, hypertension, and smoking did not independently correlate with fatal outcome.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11386/4775045
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