Thyroid nodules are detected in up to 60% of people by ultrasound examination. Most of them are benign nodules requiring only follow up, while about 4% are carcinomas and require sur-gery. Malignant nodules can be diagnosed by the fine‐needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), which however yields an indeterminate result in about 30% of the cases. Testing for RAS mutations has been proposed to refine indeterminate cytology. However, the new entity of non‐invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm, considered as having a benign evolution and frequently carrying RAS mutations, is expected to lower the specificity of this mutation. The aggressive behavior of thyroid cancer with RAS mutations, initially reported, has been overturned by the recent finding of the cooperative role of TERT mutations. Although some animal models support the carcinogenic role of RAS mutations in the thyroid, evidence that adenomas harboring these mutations evolve in carcinomas is lacking. Their poor specificity and sensitivity make the clinical impact of RAS mutations on the management of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology unsatisfactory. Evidence suggests that RAS muta-tion‐positive benign nodules demand a conservative treatment. To have a clinical impact, RAS mutations in thyroid malignancies need not to be considered alone but rather together with other genetic abnormalities in a more general context.

Significance of ras mutations in thyroid benign nodules and non‐medullary thyroid cancer

Marotta V.;Bifulco M.;Vitale M.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Thyroid nodules are detected in up to 60% of people by ultrasound examination. Most of them are benign nodules requiring only follow up, while about 4% are carcinomas and require sur-gery. Malignant nodules can be diagnosed by the fine‐needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), which however yields an indeterminate result in about 30% of the cases. Testing for RAS mutations has been proposed to refine indeterminate cytology. However, the new entity of non‐invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm, considered as having a benign evolution and frequently carrying RAS mutations, is expected to lower the specificity of this mutation. The aggressive behavior of thyroid cancer with RAS mutations, initially reported, has been overturned by the recent finding of the cooperative role of TERT mutations. Although some animal models support the carcinogenic role of RAS mutations in the thyroid, evidence that adenomas harboring these mutations evolve in carcinomas is lacking. Their poor specificity and sensitivity make the clinical impact of RAS mutations on the management of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology unsatisfactory. Evidence suggests that RAS muta-tion‐positive benign nodules demand a conservative treatment. To have a clinical impact, RAS mutations in thyroid malignancies need not to be considered alone but rather together with other genetic abnormalities in a more general context.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4778343
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