The provision of health services represents a set of central activities in the social context since, through the offer of prevention, diagnostic, treatment, care and rehabilitation services, they allow the pursuit of the ultimate goal of any health system, the well-being of the population and public health. The considerable relevance of the topic, supported by the ethical-social purposes that the health system ultimately assumes, make it an important field of analysis in business studies in general, and in management in particular, considering the economic activities developed by the many actors involved in the dispensing process. The importance of these activities and their strategic nature make them a highly regulated context, in which over time the reference legislative framework has developed and articulated for the determination of reciprocal relations between the actors, for the regulation of the flow of resources, for the control of medical activities to protect citizens. However, the proliferation of laws and regulations at the various levels of government (community, national and regional) has contributed to increasing the interpretative complexity of the health system. This work proposes the use of the Viable Systems Approach (VSA) for the interpretation and management of complex phenomena in the health sector, concerning the Italian National Health System (NHS). The deepening of the implications arising from the analysis enables the VSA as a useful approach to the advancement of research in health management, through the understanding of complexity, stimulating the observer with analysis methodologies capable of better understanding the health context under exam.
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