Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is an innovative technology that can treat many oncological diseases. Among these, uterine fibroids are well suited to be treated by focused ultrasound, because the treatment, unlike traditional surgical resection, is non-invasive and thus preserves the desired reproductive capacity of patients. There are some methodological issues in MRgFUS treatment that should be addressed. First, there is operator dependence; this is related to the use of manual approaches for the segmentation of regions of interest (ROI) for treatment, both in the initial stages of treatment planning and in the post-treatment evaluation of the ablated area. From this scenario, we understand the need to integrate MRgFUS technology with methods for the automatic detection of the regions affected by the treatment. Temperature monitoring techniques, based on proton resonance shift (PRF), although not always able to provide correct measurements, are the most used in the treatments guided by magnetic resonance. The dependence on a reference image makes the thermal maps obtained through PRF subject to artefacts and, consequently, to temperature measurement errors. It is therefore crucial to develop new techniques, perhaps based on referenceless thermometry approaches, in order to avoid overheating in unwanted areas that could lead to patients suffering burns. Closely linked to the two above mentioned problems, there is the motion compensation that would improve the current method (this requires re-planning MRgFUS treatment in cases of patient movement) as well as temperature monitoring since it would overcome limitations related to a fixed baseline image, uncorrelated to the real patient position. This paper addresses these important issues, providing for each of them a high-level discussion able to give a brief overview. Specific technical details are provided about one of the approaches in the literature, in order to make the discussed problem more complete and easier to understand.
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