: The phytochemical investigation of Ulmus minor subsp. minor samaras EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts is reported in this work for the first time, resulting in the isolation and characterization of twenty compounds (1: -20: ) including one new flavan-3-ol (1: ), one new trihydroxy fatty acid (2: ), and two glycosylated flavonoids (6: -7: ) whose NMR data are not available in the literature. Structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was obtained by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS data. Prior to further pharmacological investigations, the extracts (100-6.25 µg/mL) and compounds 1: -12: (50-5 µM) were tested for their influence on viability of a murine macrophage cell line (J774A.1). Subsequently, extracts and compounds that did not impede viability were studied for their inhibitory effect on some mediators of inflammation in J774A.1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli (LPS). The NO release and the expression of iNOS and COX-2 were then evaluated and both extracts (50-6.25 µg/mL) and compounds (20-5 µM) significantly inhibited NO release as well as iNOS and COX-2 expression in macrophages. These data highlight the anti-inflammatory properties of several isolated compounds from U. minor samaras supporting its possible alimentary use.
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