Nitrification inhibitors (NI) represent a valid chemical strategy to retard nitrogen oxidation in soil and limit nitrate leaching or nitrogen oxide emission. We hypothesized that humic substances can complex NI, thus affecting their activity, mobility, and persistence in soil. Therefore, we focused on 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) by placing it in contact with increasing concentrations of model fulvic (FA) and humic (HA) acids. The complex formation was assessed through advanced and composite NMR techniques (chemical shift drift, line-broadening effect, relaxation times, saturation transfer difference (STD), and diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY)). Our results showed that both humic substances interacted with DMPP, with HA exhibiting a significantly greater affinity than FA. STD emphasized the pivotal role of the aromatic signal, for HA-DMPP association, and both alkyl methyl groups, for FA-DMPP association. The fractions of complexed DMPP were determined on the basis of self-diffusion coefficients, which were then exploited to calculate both the humo-complex affinity constants and the free Gibbs energy (Kd and ΔG for HA were 0.5169 M and −1636 kJ mol−1 , respectively). We concluded that DMPP-based NI efficiency may be altered by soil organic matter, characterized by a pronounced hydrophobic nature. This is relevant to improve nitrogen management and lower its environmental impact.

Quantitative Evaluation of Noncovalent Interactions between 3,4-Dimethyl‑1H‑pyrazole and Dissolved Humic Substances by NMR Spectroscopy

Pierluigi Mazzei
;
2022

Abstract

Nitrification inhibitors (NI) represent a valid chemical strategy to retard nitrogen oxidation in soil and limit nitrate leaching or nitrogen oxide emission. We hypothesized that humic substances can complex NI, thus affecting their activity, mobility, and persistence in soil. Therefore, we focused on 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) by placing it in contact with increasing concentrations of model fulvic (FA) and humic (HA) acids. The complex formation was assessed through advanced and composite NMR techniques (chemical shift drift, line-broadening effect, relaxation times, saturation transfer difference (STD), and diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY)). Our results showed that both humic substances interacted with DMPP, with HA exhibiting a significantly greater affinity than FA. STD emphasized the pivotal role of the aromatic signal, for HA-DMPP association, and both alkyl methyl groups, for FA-DMPP association. The fractions of complexed DMPP were determined on the basis of self-diffusion coefficients, which were then exploited to calculate both the humo-complex affinity constants and the free Gibbs energy (Kd and ΔG for HA were 0.5169 M and −1636 kJ mol−1 , respectively). We concluded that DMPP-based NI efficiency may be altered by soil organic matter, characterized by a pronounced hydrophobic nature. This is relevant to improve nitrogen management and lower its environmental impact.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11386/4800773
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