Chondrosarcoma is a common primary bone malignancy whose phenotype increases with its histologic grade. They are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy limiting curative options for disseminated disease. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is a cell surface proteoglycan that is highly expressed across various human cancers, including chondrosarcoma, and has restricted distribution in healthy tissues, making it an attractive target for the antibody-based therapy. CSPG4 specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies have been shown to be effective in treating other cancers such as melanoma and triple negative breast cancer. The goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of CSPG4 in human chondrosarcoma and to assess the efficacy of CSPG4 specific CAR T cells in lysing chondrosarcoma cells in vitro. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we stained a tissue microarray containing primary conventional and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma from 76 patients with CSPG4 specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In addition, we incubated 2 chondrosarcoma cell lines with CSPG4-targeting CAR T cells and subsequently evaluated cell survival. Our results showed medium to high expression of CSPG4 in 29 of 41 (71%) conventional chondrosarcoma tumors and in 3 of 20 (15%) dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma tumors. CSPG4 expression showed a positive association with time to metastasis and survival in both subtypes. CSPG4 CAR T treated cell lines showed a lysis of respectively >80% and 70% demonstrating CSPG4-targeted CAR T cells effective in killing CSPG4-positive chondrosarcoma tumors.
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