The fruit of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) is known in ancient traditional Asian medicine for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities. These effects are mainly due to the action of polyphenols known as xanthones, which are contained in the pericarp of the fruit. In recent years, there has been a growing interest from pharmaceutical companies in formulating new topicals based on mangosteen full extracts to prevent skin aging. However, the molecules responsible for these effects and the mechanisms involved have not been investigated so far. Here, the arils and shells of Garcinia mangostana were extracted with chloroform and methanol, and the extracts were further purified to yield 12 xanthone derivatives. Their effects were evaluated using in vitro cultures of human epidermal keratinocytes. After confirming the absence of cytotoxicity, we evaluated the antioxidant potential of these compounds, identifying mangostanin as capable of both protecting and restoring oxidative damage induced by H2O2. We showed how mangostanin, by reducing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevents the activation of AKT (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), p53, and other cellular pathways underlying cell damage and apoptosis activation. In conclusion, our study is the first to demonstrate that mangostanin is effective in protecting the skin from the action of free radicals, thus preventing skin aging, confirming a potential toward its development in the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical fields.

Mangostanin, a Xanthone Derived from Garcinia mangostana Fruit, Exerts Protective and Reparative Effects on Oxidative Damage in Human Keratinocytes

Masullo, Milena;Pisanti, Simona;Piacente, Sonia;Bifulco, Maurizio
2022

Abstract

The fruit of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) is known in ancient traditional Asian medicine for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities. These effects are mainly due to the action of polyphenols known as xanthones, which are contained in the pericarp of the fruit. In recent years, there has been a growing interest from pharmaceutical companies in formulating new topicals based on mangosteen full extracts to prevent skin aging. However, the molecules responsible for these effects and the mechanisms involved have not been investigated so far. Here, the arils and shells of Garcinia mangostana were extracted with chloroform and methanol, and the extracts were further purified to yield 12 xanthone derivatives. Their effects were evaluated using in vitro cultures of human epidermal keratinocytes. After confirming the absence of cytotoxicity, we evaluated the antioxidant potential of these compounds, identifying mangostanin as capable of both protecting and restoring oxidative damage induced by H2O2. We showed how mangostanin, by reducing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevents the activation of AKT (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), p53, and other cellular pathways underlying cell damage and apoptosis activation. In conclusion, our study is the first to demonstrate that mangostanin is effective in protecting the skin from the action of free radicals, thus preventing skin aging, confirming a potential toward its development in the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical fields.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4804135
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