The complexity of neurodegenerative diseases, among which Alzheimer's disease plays a pivotal role, poses one of the tough therapeutic challenges of present time. In this perspective, a multitarget approach appears as a promising strategy to simultaneously interfere with different defective pathways. In this paper, a structural simplification plan was performed on our previously reported multipotent polycyclic compounds, in order to obtain a simpler pharmacophoric central core with improved pharmacokinetic properties, while maintaining the modulating activity on neuronal calcium channels and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK-3β), as validated targets to combat Alzheimer's disease. The molecular pruning approach applied here led to tetrahydroisoindole-dione (1), tetrahydromethanoisoindole-dione (2) and tetrahydroepoxyisoindole-dione (3) structures, easily affordable by Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Preliminary data indicated structure 3 as the most appropriate, thus a SAR study was performed by introducing different substituents, selected on the basis of the commercial availability of the furan derivatives required for the synthetic procedure. The results indicated compound 10 as a promising, structurally atypical, safe and BBB-penetrating Cav modulator, inhibiting both L- and N-calcium channels, likely responsible for the Ca2+ overload observed in Alzheimer's disease. In a multitarget perspective, compound 11 appeared as an effective prototype, endowed with improved Cav inhibitory activity, with respect to the reference drug nifedipine, and encouraging modulating activity on GSK-3β.

Targeting neuronal calcium channels and GSK3β for Alzheimer's disease with naturally-inspired Diels-Alder adducts

Feoli, Alessandra;Castellano, Sabrina;
2022

Abstract

The complexity of neurodegenerative diseases, among which Alzheimer's disease plays a pivotal role, poses one of the tough therapeutic challenges of present time. In this perspective, a multitarget approach appears as a promising strategy to simultaneously interfere with different defective pathways. In this paper, a structural simplification plan was performed on our previously reported multipotent polycyclic compounds, in order to obtain a simpler pharmacophoric central core with improved pharmacokinetic properties, while maintaining the modulating activity on neuronal calcium channels and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK-3β), as validated targets to combat Alzheimer's disease. The molecular pruning approach applied here led to tetrahydroisoindole-dione (1), tetrahydromethanoisoindole-dione (2) and tetrahydroepoxyisoindole-dione (3) structures, easily affordable by Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Preliminary data indicated structure 3 as the most appropriate, thus a SAR study was performed by introducing different substituents, selected on the basis of the commercial availability of the furan derivatives required for the synthetic procedure. The results indicated compound 10 as a promising, structurally atypical, safe and BBB-penetrating Cav modulator, inhibiting both L- and N-calcium channels, likely responsible for the Ca2+ overload observed in Alzheimer's disease. In a multitarget perspective, compound 11 appeared as an effective prototype, endowed with improved Cav inhibitory activity, with respect to the reference drug nifedipine, and encouraging modulating activity on GSK-3β.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4804371
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