Antimicrobial resistance represents a serious threat for global health, causing an unacceptable burden in terms of morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. In particular, in 2017, carbapenem-resistant organisms were listed by the WHO among the group of pathogens for which novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. Fortunately, several drugs and combinations have been introduced in recent years to treat multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. However, a correct use of these molecules is needed to preserve their efficacy. In the present paper, we will provide an overview on the epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance of the most common MDR Gram-negative bacteria, proposing a treatment algorithm for the management of infections due to carbapenem-resistant bacteria based on the most recent clinical evidence.
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