Phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles loaded with Triiodothyronine (T3) were fabricated using different manufacturing methods: thin layer hydration plus sonication (TF-UF), supercritical liposome formation (SC), and microfluidic technology (MF). Vesicles obtained by MF had the lowest mean diameter (88.61 ± 44.48 nm) with a Zeta Potential of -20.1 ± 5.90 mV and loading of 10 mg/g (encapsulation efficiency: 57%). In contrast, SC vesicles showed extremely low encapsulation efficiency (<10%) probably due to T3 solubility in ethanol/carbon dioxide mixture; despite TF-UF vesicles exhibiting good size (167.7 ± 90 nm; Zp -8.50 ± 0.60 mV) and loading (10 mg/g), poor mass recovery was obtained (50% loss). MF vesicles had low cytotoxicity, and they were well enough internalized by both HeLa and human tendon stem/progenitor cells (hTSPCs). Their biological activity was also monitored in both 2D and 3D cultures of hTSPCs supplemented with therapeutical concentrations of PC/T3 nano-liposomes. 2D culture showed almost similar constitutive gene expression compared to control culture supplemented with free-T3. On the contrary, when hTPSCs 3D culture was assembled, it showed a more evident homogeneous distribution of FITC labeled vesicles within the high-density structure and a significant upregulation of cell constitutive genes, such as type I Collagen (4.8-fold; p < 0.0001) at day 7, compared to the control, suggesting that T3/PC formulation has increased T3 cytosolic concentration, thus improving cells metabolic activity. The study supported MF technology for nano-carriers fabrication and opens perspectives on the activity of PC/T3 nano-vesicles as innovative formulations for TPSCs stimulation in ECM secretion.

Lipid nano-vesicles for thyroid hormone encapsulation: A comparison between different fabrication technologies, drug loading, and an in vitro delivery to human tendon stem/progenitor cells in 2D and 3D culture

Lamparelli, E P;Ciardulli, M C;Scala, P;Scognamiglio, M;Charlier, B;Di Pietro, P;Izzo, V;Vecchione, C;Maffulli, N;Della Porta, G
2022

Abstract

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles loaded with Triiodothyronine (T3) were fabricated using different manufacturing methods: thin layer hydration plus sonication (TF-UF), supercritical liposome formation (SC), and microfluidic technology (MF). Vesicles obtained by MF had the lowest mean diameter (88.61 ± 44.48 nm) with a Zeta Potential of -20.1 ± 5.90 mV and loading of 10 mg/g (encapsulation efficiency: 57%). In contrast, SC vesicles showed extremely low encapsulation efficiency (<10%) probably due to T3 solubility in ethanol/carbon dioxide mixture; despite TF-UF vesicles exhibiting good size (167.7 ± 90 nm; Zp -8.50 ± 0.60 mV) and loading (10 mg/g), poor mass recovery was obtained (50% loss). MF vesicles had low cytotoxicity, and they were well enough internalized by both HeLa and human tendon stem/progenitor cells (hTSPCs). Their biological activity was also monitored in both 2D and 3D cultures of hTSPCs supplemented with therapeutical concentrations of PC/T3 nano-liposomes. 2D culture showed almost similar constitutive gene expression compared to control culture supplemented with free-T3. On the contrary, when hTPSCs 3D culture was assembled, it showed a more evident homogeneous distribution of FITC labeled vesicles within the high-density structure and a significant upregulation of cell constitutive genes, such as type I Collagen (4.8-fold; p < 0.0001) at day 7, compared to the control, suggesting that T3/PC formulation has increased T3 cytosolic concentration, thus improving cells metabolic activity. The study supported MF technology for nano-carriers fabrication and opens perspectives on the activity of PC/T3 nano-vesicles as innovative formulations for TPSCs stimulation in ECM secretion.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4804978
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 3
  • Scopus 4
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact