Sixteen diterpenes (1-16), along with 10 previously described compounds, including four flavonoids and six diterpenes, were isolated from the aerial parts of Psiadia punctulata growing in Saudi Arabia. The diterpene structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data. Furthermore, a DFT/NMR procedure was used to suggest the relative configuration of several compounds. The labdane-derived skeletons, namely, ent-atisane, ent-beyerene, ent-trachylobane, and entkaurene, were identified. The extracts, fractions, and pure compounds were then tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Treponema denticola, and Lactobacillus plantarum. One diterpenoid, namely, psiadin, showed an additive effect with the antiseptic chlorhexidine, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of less than 1. Additionally, psiadin showed a prospective inhibition activity for bacterial efflux pumps.
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