Ficus rubiginosa plant extract showed antimicrobial activity, but no evidence concerning its antiviral properties was reported. The antiviral activity of the methanolic extract (MeOH) and its n-hexane (H) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions against Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Human coronavirus (HCoV) -229E, and Poliovirus-1 (PV-1) was investigated in the different phases of viral infection in the VERO CCL-81 cell line. To confirm the antiviral efficacy, a qPCR was conducted. The recorded cytotoxic concentration 50% was 513.1, 298.6, and 56.45 µg/mL for MeOH, H, and EA, respectively, assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after 72 h of treatment. The Ficus rubiginosa leaf extract inhibited the replication of HSV-1 in the early stages of infection, showing a complete inhibition up to 0.62, 0.31, and 1.25 µg/mL. Against HCoV-229E, a total inhibition up to 1.25 µg/mL for MeOH and H as well as 5 µg/mL for EA was observed. Otherwise, no activity was recorded against PV-1. The leaf extract could act directly on the viral envelope, destructuring the lipid membrane and/or directly blocking the enriched proteins on the viral surface. The verified gene inhibition suggested that the treatments with M, H, and EA impaired HSV-1 and HCoV-229E replication, with a greater antiviral efficiency against HSV-1 compared to HCoV-229E, possibly due to a greater affinity of Ficus rubiginosa towards membrane glycoproteins and/or the different lipid envelopes.

Antiviral Activity of Ficus rubiginosa Leaf Extracts against HSV-1, HCoV-229E and PV-1

Franci G.;Galdiero M.;Filippelli A.;Conti V.;
2022

Abstract

Ficus rubiginosa plant extract showed antimicrobial activity, but no evidence concerning its antiviral properties was reported. The antiviral activity of the methanolic extract (MeOH) and its n-hexane (H) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions against Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Human coronavirus (HCoV) -229E, and Poliovirus-1 (PV-1) was investigated in the different phases of viral infection in the VERO CCL-81 cell line. To confirm the antiviral efficacy, a qPCR was conducted. The recorded cytotoxic concentration 50% was 513.1, 298.6, and 56.45 µg/mL for MeOH, H, and EA, respectively, assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after 72 h of treatment. The Ficus rubiginosa leaf extract inhibited the replication of HSV-1 in the early stages of infection, showing a complete inhibition up to 0.62, 0.31, and 1.25 µg/mL. Against HCoV-229E, a total inhibition up to 1.25 µg/mL for MeOH and H as well as 5 µg/mL for EA was observed. Otherwise, no activity was recorded against PV-1. The leaf extract could act directly on the viral envelope, destructuring the lipid membrane and/or directly blocking the enriched proteins on the viral surface. The verified gene inhibition suggested that the treatments with M, H, and EA impaired HSV-1 and HCoV-229E replication, with a greater antiviral efficiency against HSV-1 compared to HCoV-229E, possibly due to a greater affinity of Ficus rubiginosa towards membrane glycoproteins and/or the different lipid envelopes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4808491
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